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Course, academic year 2022/2023
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Physical Chemistry I (a) - MC260P112
Title: Fyzikální chemie I (a)
Czech title: Fyzikální chemie I (a)
Guaranteed by: Department of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry (31-260)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2022
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 5
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/3, C+Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Peter Košovan, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): doc. RNDr. Peter Košovan, Ph.D.
Co-requisite : {At least one of the following subjects: MS710P56, MS710P52, MS710P55, NMAF071, NMAF072, NMUM101, NMUM103, NCHF071,NCHF072, NMTM101, NMTM103, NMAI054}
Pre-requisite : {At least one of the following subjects: MC260P54, MC280P58, MC260P119, MC280P82, MC260P33, MC260P139}
Is co-requisite for: MC260P113
Is incompatible with: MC260P01N
Is interchangeable with: MC260P01N
In complex pre-requisite: MC260C45N, MC260C47
Annotation -
Last update: prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc. (14.12.2021)
Physical Chemistry I

The lecture is the first part of the Physical Chemistry course, which is directed predominantly for students in chemical fields. It brings the base of thermodynamics directed for its use in sciences. In parallel with the lecture there are held Calculations in Physical Chemistry, where the understanding of the theoretical matter is trained.
Literature - Czech
Last update: prof. RNDr. Jan Kotek, Ph.D. (20.03.2018)

P.W. Atkins: Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press
W.J. Moore: Fyzikální chemie, SNTL, Praha
J. Dvořák, R. Brdička: Základy fysikální chemie, Academia, Praha

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc. (14.12.2021)

For pasing the exam the knowledge presented in the lectures is necessary.

Syllabus -
Last update: prof. RNDr. Bohuslav Gaš, CSc. (06.06.2019)

1. Basic terms

Matter and radiation, amount of substance - mol, Avogadro constant, extensive and intensive quantities, molar quantities, units of concentration. Mass and energy conservation laws, units of energy, energy of molecular movement - translation, rotation, vibration, thermal energy, equipartition principle of classical physics.

2. Properties of gases

States of substances, units of pressure and temperature, standard values of pressure and temperature, temperature scales, perfect gas equation. Kinetic theory of gases: distribution of speed, mean square speed, mean speed, most probable speed, mean energy, intermolecular collisions, collision frequency, collision density, mean free path, collision with surfaces. Real gases: compression factor, virial equation of state, van der Waals equation, critical constants of real gases.

3. First law of thermodynamics

Internal energy, expansion work, reversible and irreversible processes, functions of state, enthalpy, heat capacities, expansion work in reversible and irreversible processes, isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression of ideal gas. Thermochemistry: enthalpy (heat) of fusion, boiling, sublimation, enthalpy (heat) of reaction, formation, combustion, dependence of reaction enthalpy on temperature, Hess law.

4. Second law of thermodynamics

Definition of entropy of system and environment, Clausius inequality, calculation of entropy, heat engines, heat pump, their efficiency definition of Helmholtz and Gibbs energy, spontaneity and equilibrium of processes, thermodynamic equation of state, Maxwell equations, dependence of Gibbs energy on temperature and pressure.Definition of chemical potential of pure substance, chemical potential of ideal gas, fugacity of real gases and its calculation.

5. Pure substances

Solid substances, liquids, gases, phase changes, Gibbs law of phases, phase equilibria, Clapeyron equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, water vapour in air, relative humidity.

6. Mixtures

Partial molar quantities, partial molar volume, chemical potential of mixture, Raoult law, Henry law, colligative properties of solutions: elevation of boiling point depression of freezing point, solubility, osmotic pressure, physiological values of osmolarity. Boiling of mixture of liquids: distillation, rectification, phase diagrams p-x, T-x, azeotropic mixtures, distillation with water steam. Definition of activity, activity of mixture of gases, activity of liquid solution, mixing Gibbs function.

7. Chemical equilibria

Reaction Gibbs energy, standard reaction Gibbs energy, equilibrium constant, dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature (van't Hoff equation), dependence of equilibrium composition on pressure, calculation of equilibrium composition of reaction mixture, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibria.

A more detailed syllabus together with equations is available at the Web page

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