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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Physical Chemistry I (a) - MC260P112
Title: Fyzikální chemie I (a)
Czech title: Fyzikální chemie I (a)
Guaranteed by: Department of Physical and Macromolecular Chemistry (31-260)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2022
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 5
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/3, C+Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Peter Košovan, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): doc. RNDr. Peter Košovan, Ph.D.
Co-requisite : {At least one of the following subjects: MS710P56, MS710P52, MS710P55, NMAF071, NMAF072, NMUM101, NMUM103, NCHF071,NCHF072, NMTM101, NMTM103, NMAI054}
Pre-requisite : {At least one of the following subjects: MC260P54, MC280P58, MC260P119, MC280P82, MC260P33, MC260P139}
Is co-requisite for: MC260P113
Is incompatible with: MC260P01N
Is interchangeable with: MC260P01N
In complex pre-requisite: MC260C45N, MC260C47
Annotation -
Physical Chemistry I

The lecture is the first part of the Physical Chemistry course, intended for students of various branches of Chemistry. It introduces the basics of of thermodynamics and presents examples of its use for studying systems at equilibrium. The lectures are complemented by a hands-on problem solving course in which we apply the theoretical knowledge. Passing of the problem-solving course is a prerequisite to taking the exam.


Last update: Košovan Peter, doc. RNDr., Ph.D. (02.10.2023)
Literature - Czech

P.W. Atkins: Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press
W.J. Moore: Fyzikální chemie, SNTL, Praha
J. Dvořák, R. Brdička: Základy fysikální chemie, Academia, Praha

Poznámky k přednášce od prof. Gaše (pdf na google classroom)

Last update: Košovan Peter, doc. RNDr., Ph.D. (02.10.2023)
Requirements to the exam -

Problem-solving part (zápočet)

* 2 tests, each 90 min. 20 points for each
* additional points can be obtained for bonus problems solved during the semester (not later)
* total score of 20 points is required to pass this part
* those who obtain a total of 40 or more points during the semester can skip the written part of the exam and proceed directly to the oral exam
* those who do not obtain 20 points during the semester will be given an extra test with a maximum total of 40 points. In order to pass, they have to obtain at least 20 points from this test, disregarding the points obtained during the semester
* those who fail also the extra test will be evaluated on an individual basis

Written and oral exam:

* it is required to pass the problem-solving part in order to enroll for the exam
* the written part entails a 90min. test, similar to the tests previously written in the problem-solving part
* scoring at least 50% in the written part is a prerequisit to do the oral part of the exam
* the overall grade is decided based on both written and oral part of the exam
* list of topics for the oral exam is updated at the end of the semester and provided in google classroom
* if no further exam slots are scheduled in SIS, then new slots will be created when requested by students

Bonus problems:

* each bonus problem is assigned a certain number of points
* unless specified otherwise, problems from the lecture script are worth 1 point each
* the teacher can award a lower number of points for an incomplete solution, or return it to the student with a request to complete the task

Negative points for bonus problems can be awarded if:

* the submitted solution does not follow the instructions (e.g. the instructions request a derivation but the student submits only the initial formula and the final result)
* the solution is copied from the internet or bears other signs of plagiarism
* the solution is based on a false assumption which indicates general misunderstanding of the topic
* it features other elementary errors (e.g. repeated use of wrong units or missing units)

Last update: Košovan Peter, doc. RNDr., Ph.D. (02.10.2023)
Syllabus -

1. Basic terms

Matter and radiation, amount of substance - mol, Avogadro constant, extensive and intensive quantities, molar quantities, units of concentration. Mass and energy conservation laws, units of energy, energy of molecular movement - translation, rotation, vibration, thermal energy, equipartition principle of classical physics.

2. Properties of gases

States of substances, units of pressure and temperature, standard values of pressure and temperature, temperature scales, perfect gas equation. Kinetic theory of gases: distribution of speed, mean square speed, mean speed, most probable speed, mean energy, intermolecular collisions, collision frequency, collision density, mean free path, collision with surfaces. Real gases: compression factor, virial equation of state, van der Waals equation, critical constants of real gases.

3. First law of thermodynamics

Internal energy, expansion work, reversible and irreversible processes, functions of state, enthalpy, heat capacities, expansion work in reversible and irreversible processes, isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression of ideal gas. Thermochemistry: enthalpy (heat) of fusion, boiling, sublimation, enthalpy (heat) of reaction, formation, combustion, dependence of reaction enthalpy on temperature, Hess law.

4. Second law of thermodynamics

Definition of entropy of system and environment, Clausius inequality, calculation of entropy, heat engines, heat pump, their efficiency definition of Helmholtz and Gibbs energy, spontaneity and equilibrium of processes, thermodynamic equation of state, Maxwell equations, dependence of Gibbs energy on temperature and pressure.Definition of chemical potential of pure substance, chemical potential of ideal gas, fugacity of real gases and its calculation.

5. Pure substances

Solid substances, liquids, gases, phase changes, Gibbs law of phases, phase equilibria, Clapeyron equation, Clausius-Clapeyron equation, water vapour in air, relative humidity.

6. Mixtures

Partial molar quantities, partial molar volume, chemical potential of mixture, Raoult law, Henry law, colligative properties of solutions: elevation of boiling point depression of freezing point, solubility, osmotic pressure, physiological values of osmolarity. Boiling of mixture of liquids: distillation, rectification, phase diagrams p-x, T-x, azeotropic mixtures, distillation with water steam. Definition of activity, activity of mixture of gases, activity of liquid solution, mixing Gibbs function.

7. Chemical equilibria

Reaction Gibbs energy, standard reaction Gibbs energy, equilibrium constant, dependence of equilibrium constant on temperature (van't Hoff equation), dependence of equilibrium composition on pressure, calculation of equilibrium composition of reaction mixture, homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical equilibria.


A more detailed syllabus together with equations is available at the Web page
http://www.natur.cuni.cz/gas

Last update: Gaš Bohuslav, prof. RNDr., CSc. (06.06.2019)
 
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