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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Pathology - B83162 (General Medicine - English parallel)
Title: Pathology
Guaranteed by: Institute of Pathology First Faculty of Medicine Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague (11-00310)
Faculty: First Faculty of Medicine
Actual: from 2023
Semester: winter
Points: 13
E-Credits: 13
Examination process: winter s.:
summer s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:4/4, C [HT]
summer s.:4/4, C+Ex [HT]
Extent per academic year: 240 [hours]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: prof. MUDr. Pavel Dundr, Ph.D.
Guarantor: prof. MUDr. Pavel Dundr, Ph.D.
Comes under: Compulsory for GM 3.y._23/24
Attributes: Lékařství
Teoretický předmět
Co-requisite : B83121
Pre-requisite : B83119, B83120
Interchangeability : B80384
Is pre-requisite for: B80128, B80082, B80114, B80402, B80120, B80118, B80760, B80762, B83007, B80410, B80304, B80305, B80579, B80307, B80602, B80084, B83535, B80613, B80122, B80123, B82105, B80116, B80078, B80098, B80126, B80033, B81311, B80791, B80080, B81312, B80121, B80129, B83011, B80113, B80308
Is interchangeable with: B80384
Files Comments Added by
download Skin tumors.pdf MUDr. Quang Hiep Bui

Dear colleagues,

Based on the current measures put in place by the Faculty, the organization of the winter semester teaching will be as follows: Pathology practical classes (microscope practices, seminars) will be taught IN PERSON. The lectures will begin in person as well, they will take place in the lecture hall of the Institute of pathology, on the 2nd floor.

If there any any changes to the organization of your classes you will all be informed immediately through MS Teams and also on the website of our Institute.

Last update: Kendall Bártů Michaela, MUDr., Ph.D. (01.03.2022)
Winter semester topics:

Fundamentals of cell pathology.

Morphology and pathogenesis changes in organs and tissues in disease states.

General characteristics of inflammatory processes.

Morphological changes in infectious diseases.

Morphological changes in autoimmune diseases.

Morphological manifestations of rejection processes in transplants.

General oncology including principles of molecular biology diagnostics and international classifications of tumors.

Morphology of preneoplastic conditions. Role of pathologists in screening.

Summer semester topics:

Systemic organ pathology: macroscopic, histopathological changes, and molecular biology of individual diseases.

Etiopathogenesis of disease states.

Complications and healing of diseases.

Typing, grading, staging, and rating (prognosis) of tumor processes.

Morphological findings accompanying therapeutic procedures.

Last update: Kolářová Jana (12.02.2020)
Requirements to the exam - Czech

 The credit will be awarded to students after fulfilling the following conditions:

1. During the course of the semester, each student must succesfully pass all of the required self-repetition tests on Moodle. For the winter semester, that is General pathology (i.e. Pathology 1) tests available here, while for the summer semester it is the Organ (Special) pathology tests (i.e. Pathology 2) available here.  In order to obtain the credit it is necessary to succesfully pass test (the result itself does not matter, the point threshold is set automatically in the system). There is no time limit to how long you can take to fill out the test. The students can take these tests in any order they wish to and at any time, provided that they have taken all of the tests by the end of summer semester.

2. Meeting the attendance requirements. During the time when in presence teaching of the practical lessons is allowed, attendance of these classes continues to be mandatory. The students are allowed to have a total of 3 "excused" (i.e. justifiably substantiated by a reason they provide their teacher with) absences for the entire semester.

The traditional slide exam will not be held this semester and as such the slide exam is NOT one of the requirements for obtaining the credit.




1. Cell injury – causes, sequence of events2. Cell death - sequence of events, mechanisms, types of cell death
3. Cellular adaptation to stress - definitions, examples
4. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia
5. Atrophy
6. Metaplasia
7. Intracellular accumulations – definition, overview
8. Intracellular accumulation of lipids – steatosis, lipidoses (mechanisms, examples)
9. Intracellular accumulation of proteins (examples)
10. Amyloidosis
11. Mucopolysaccharidoses. Cystic fibrosis
12. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus, glycogenoses)
13. Pigments - exogenous, including pneumoconioses
14. Pigments - endogenous
15. Pathologic calcification
16. Crystals and concrements (lithiasis)
17. Heart failure – cardiac findings
18. Heart failure – left-sided versus right-sided failure
19. Hyperemia, congestion and hemorrhage
20. Edema
21. Hemostasis and thrombosis
22. Ischemia
23. Embolism
24. Infarction
25. Shock
26. Overview of inflammation – definitions, general features and causes
27. Acute inflammation – overview and summary, sequence of events
28. Morphologic patterns of acute inflammation
29. Outcomes of acute inflammation
30. Chronic inflammation (causes, cells and mediators). Morphologic features of chronic
31. Granulomatous inflammation
32. Systemic effects of inflammation
33. Local signs of inflammation
34. Overview of tissue repair
35. Cell and tissue regeneration, repair by scarring
36. Healing of skin wounds (first and second intention), abnormalities in wound healing
and scarring
37. Tuberculosis – overview, pathogenesis, clinical features
38. Primary tuberculosis
39. Secondary tuberculosis
40. Sarcoidosis. Leprosy
41. Syphilis
42. Immunologically mediated tissue injury – hypersensitivity reactions
43. Autoimmune diseases (mechanisms, general features, examples of localized and
systemic diseases), rejection of transplants
44. Immunodeficiency syndromes45. Genetic causes of diseases
46. Chemical, physical, and nutritional causes of diseases
47. Spectrum of inflammatory responses to infection
48. Mechanisms of viral and bacterial injury
49. Neoplasia – definitions, nomenclature, classification
50. Differentiation of tumor cells, anaplasia, dysplasia
51. Characteristics of benign, borderline and malignant neoplasms
52. Local invasion. Metastasis
53. Genetic and acquired conditions predisposing to cancer (precanceroses)
54. Cancer genes. Genetic lesions in cancer
55. Carcinogenic agents
56. Typing, grading and staging of tumors
57. Tumor-like conditions (pseudotumors)
58. Epithelial tumors – overview, characteristics, examples
59. Mesenchymal (soft tissue) tumors - overview, characteristics, examples
60. Hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue tumors - overview, characteristics, examples
61. Neuroectodermal tumors - overview, characteristics, examples
62. Germ cell tumors - overview, characteristics, examples
63. Mixed tumors - overview, characteristics, examples


64. Hypertensive vascular disease, hypertension (systemic and pulmonary)
65. Arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis
66. Aneurysms and dissections
67. Vasculitides
68. Diseases of veins and lymphatics
69. Tumors of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels

70. Congenital heart disease
71. Ischemic heart disease
72. Hypertension, heart in hypertension
73. Pathology of pulmonary circulation
74. Valvular heart disease – degenerative valve disease, rheumatic valvular disease,
rheumatic fever
75. Valvular heart disease - infective endocarditis, noninfected vegetations
76. Cardiomyopathies and myocarditis
77. Pericardial disease
78. Cardiac tumors

79. Anemias – summary, classification
80. Myeloproliferative neoplasms
81. Myelodysplastic syndromes
82. Leukemias (acute and chronic)83. Plasma cell neoplasms and related entities
84. Histiocytic neoplasms (Langerhans cell histiocytosis) and dendritic (reticular) cell
85. Bone marrow suppression, aplastic anemia
86. Bleeding disorders, DIC
87. Lymphadenopathies
88. General characteristics of lymphoid neoplasms
89. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
90. Hodgkin lymphoma
91. Spleen pathology (splenomegaly, rupture, circulatory disorders)

92. Inflammatory diseases of nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, and the middle ear
93. Tumors of the nose, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx
94. Tumors of larynx and trachea
95. Pulmonary diseases of vascular origin
96. Pulmonary edema
97. Pulmonary embolism
98. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (diffuse alveolar damage)
99. Atelectasis, collapse, emphysema
100. Chronic obstructive lung diseases
101. Chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, asthma
102. Pulmonary emphysema
103. Chronic interstitial (restrictive) lung diseases
104. Pulmonary infections – classification
105. Bacterial pneumonias – morphologic patterns
106. Pulmonary tuberculosis
107. Granulomatous inflammations of the lung
108. Tumors of the bronchi and lungs

109. Pathological content of the pleural cavity
110. Pleuritis
111. Tumors of the pleura
112. Pathology of the mediastinum and thymus

113. Oral cavity inflammations, proliferative lesions of the oral cavity, odontogenic
114. Diseases of teeth and supporting structures (dental caries and their
complications, gingivitis, periodontitis)
115. Tumors and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity, odontogenic tumors
116. Diseases of salivary glands – nonneoplastic
117. Diseases of salivary glands - neoplasms
118. Non-neoplastic diseases of esophagus (malformations, esophageal diverticula,
hiatal hernia, esophageal achalasia)
119. Non-neoplastic diseases of esophagus – inflammations, esophageal varices
120. Esophageal tumors121. Gastropathy and acute gastritis
122. Chronic gastritis
123. Complications of chronic gastritis - peptic ulcer disease
124. Gastric polyps and tumors
125. Intestinal obstruction
126. Vascular disorders of bowel
127. Malabsorption
128. Infectious enterocolitis
129. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other non-infectious intestinal
130. Acute appendicitis
131. Inflammatory intestinal disease – sigmoid diverticula and diverticulitis
132. Colonic polyps and polyposes
133. Tumors of the intestine (epithelial, mesenchymal, lymphomas,
neuroendocrine tumors)
134. Diseases of the peritoneum, hernias, prolapse

135. General features of liver disease – mechanisms of injury and repair (necrosis,
apoptosis, scar formation)
136. Liver failure and cirrhosis, cholestatic syndromes
137. Viral hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis
138. Drug- and toxin-induced liver injury
139. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
140. Inherited metabolic liver diseases (hemochromatosis, Wilson disease, α1-
antitrypsin deficiency)
141. Diseases of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tree
142. Circulatory disorders of the liver
143. Nodules and tumors of the liver
144. Non-neoplastic disorders of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tree
145. Tumors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic biliary tree
146. Cystic fibrosis of the pancreas
147. Inflammations of the pancreas
148. Pancreatic neoplasms

149. Cystic diseases of the kidney, congenital and developmental anomalies
150. Glomerular diseases – summary, mechanisms of injury, classification
151. Primary glomerular diseases – diseases associated mostly with nephrotic
152. Primary glomerular diseases – diseases associated mostly with
hematuria/nephritic syndrome
153. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, glomerulonephritis secondary to
systemic disease (lupus nephritis, diabetic nephropathy)
154. Diabetic nephropathy
155. Renal diseases affecting tubules and interstitium
156. Renal diseases involving blood vessels – nephrosclerosis and malignant
hypertension157. Tumors of the kidney
158. Non-neoplastic diseases of the lower urinary tract (urinary outflow obstruction
159. Tumors of the lower urinary tract

160. Nonneoplastic diseases of prostate, penis and testis
161. Tumors of the prostate and penis
162. Testicular neoplasms

163. Nonneoplastic diseases of the vulva and vagina
164. Tumors of the vulva and vagina
165. Nonneoplastic diseases and premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix
166. Tumors of the uterine cervix
167. Nonneoplastic diseases of the uterine body
168. Tumors and precanceroses of the uterine body
169. Diseases of fallopian tubes, ectopic pregnancy
170. Ovarian cysts
171. Epithelial tumors of the ovary
172. Germ cell tumors, sex cord stromal tumors and mixed tumours of the ovary
173. Gestational trophoblastic disease
174. Diseases of pregnancy and placenta (placental abnormalities, inflammations
and infections of the placenta, ectopic pregnancy, preeclampsia/eclampsia)
175. Clinical presentations of breast disease, nonneoplastic diseases of the breast
176. Tumors of the breast

177. Edema, intracranial hypertension, herniation, and hydrocephalus
178. Cerebrovascular diseases
179. Congenital malformations, neurocutaneous syndromes, traumatic parenchymal
180. Infections of the nervous system
181. Prion diseases, metabolic and toxic encephalopathies
182. Diseases of myelin
183. Neurodegenerative diseases
184. Tumors of brain, meninges, peripheral nerves
185. Pathology of the eye

186. Osteopenia and osteoporosis
187. Fractures and their healing, osteonecrosis
188. Metabolic osteopathies (rickets and osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism-related
bone disorders, renal osteodystrophy)
189. Osteomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, Paget ́s disease
190. Bone tumors and tumorlike lesions
191. Nonneoplastic diseases of joints (arthritis, arthrosis)192. Joint tumors and tumorlike conditions
193. Disorders of skeletal muscle

194. Non-neoplastic and tumor diseases of the pituitary gland, pituitary syndromes
195. Adrenocortical hyperfunction and insufficiency
196. Neoplasms of the adrenal cortex and medulla
197. Nonneoplastic thyroid diseases and thyroidal syndromes
198. Thyroid neoplasms
199. Diseases of parathyroid glands

200. Diabetes mellitus

201. Non-infectious dermatitides (acute inflammatory dermatoses, chronic
inflammatory dermatoses, blistering disorders)
202. Infectious dermatoses and inflammatory disorders of dermis and hypodermis
203. Epithelial lesions and tumors of the skin
204. Mesenchymal tumors of the skin
205. Melanocytic lesions and tumors of the skin

206. Prematurity and fetal pathology prior to birth, damage during labour (perinatal
infections, perinatal injuries, fetal hydrops...)
207. Complications of the perinatal period – respiratory distress syndrome of the
newborn, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis,
newborn sepsis)
208. Tumors of children and adolescents

209. Infections caused by herpetic viruses, viral exanthemas
210. Respiratory viral and bacterial infections
211. Infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria
212. Infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria
213. Primarily enteropathogenic bacterial infections
214. Clostridial and chlamydial infections, zoonoses, diseases transmitted by insects
215. Mycoses
216. Parasitic diseases (toxoplasmosis, malaria, amoebiasis, giardiasis,
trichomoniasis, leischmaniosis, trypanosomiasis, taeniasis, ascariasis)

Last update: Dušková Jaroslava, prof. MUDr., CSc. (03.06.2024)
Education plan -
Schedule by date
Day Date Description Teacher Files Note Hodnocení
Monday02.10.2023Introduction. Role and methods in pathology. Health, illness, causes of diseases, classification of diseases. MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
průměr: 2, hodnoceno: 4x
Thursday05.10.2023Cell damage. Necrosis, apoptosis. Fate of the damaged tissue prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
průměr: 3, hodnoceno: 3x
Monday09.10.2023Pathology of organelles. Secretion process and its disorders. Lysosomes, peroxisomes, Mitochondria. prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
průměr: 4, hodnoceno: 3x
Thursday12.10.2023Amyloidosis prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
průměr: 4, hodnoceno: 4x
Monday16.10.2023Steatosis. Glycogen disorders. Calcification. prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
průměr: 4, hodnoceno: 1x
Thursday19.10.2023Autogenous pigments prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
průměr: 3, hodnoceno: 1x
Monday23.10.2023Haematogenous pigments. Icterus prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
průměr: 5, hodnoceno: 1x
Thursday26.10.2023Exogenous pigments prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Monday30.10.2023Manifestations of circulatory insufficiency prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday02.11.2023Local circulatory disorders prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Monday06.11.2023Inflammation I. Definition of inflammation, causes of inflammation. Pathomorphology of the acute phase of inflammation. Inflammatory exudate. Functions of individual cells, the role of mediators. Phagocytosis and its disorders. Healing of acute inflammation, resolution, organization, regeneration, wound healing, reparative processes. prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday09.11.2023Inflammation II. Systematics of exudative inflammation of the skin, serous membranes, mucous membranes and interstitial inflammation. prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Monday13.11.2023Inflammation III. Chronic inflammation. Granulomatous inflammatory processes. Fibroplastic processes. Immune disorders and inflammation. prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday16.11.2023Infectious diseases I prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Monday20.11.2023Infectious diseases II prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday23.11.2023General oncology I prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
průměr: 4, hodnoceno: 1x
Monday27.11.2023Fundamentals od molecular pathology of tumor disease. Use of molecular biological methods in molecular pathology. RNDr. J. Hojný, Ph.D.  
Thursday30.11.2023General oncology II prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Monday04.12.2023Mesenchymal tumours prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday07.12.2023Lymphomas and leukamias MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
průměr: 1, hodnoceno: 1x
Monday11.12.202311. 12. - 15. 12. 2023 Integrated course (microbiology, pathology, infectious diseases) 
průměr: 1, hodnoceno: 1x
Monday18.12.2023Epithelial tumours prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday21.12.2023Neuroectodermal tumours prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday04.01.2024Pathology of vessels doc. MUDr. Eva Honsová, Ph.D. 
Monday08.01.2024Cardiovascular malformations. Pathology of the endocardium doc. MUDr. Kristýna Němejcová, Ph.D. 
Thursday11.01.2024Pathology of the myocardium doc. MUDr. Kristýna Němejcová, Ph.D. 
Monday15.01.2024Pathology of the respiratory system I prof. MUDr. Ctibor Povýšil, DrSc. 
Thursday18.01.2024Pathology of the respiratory system II prof. MUDr. Ctibor Povýšil, DrSc. 
Schedule by date
Day Date Description Teacher Files Note Hodnocení
Tuesday20.02.2024Haematopathology I MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
průměr: 1, hodnoceno: 1x
Thursday22.02.2024Haematopathology II MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
průměr: 1, hodnoceno: 1x
Tuesday27.02.2024Haematopathology III MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
Thursday29.02.2024Haematopathology IV MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
Tuesday05.03.2024Orofacial pathology MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
Thursday07.03.2024Pathology of the digestive system I MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
Tuesday12.03.2024Pathology of the digestive system II MUDr. Helena Skálová, Ph.D. 
Thursday14.03.2024Pathology of the liver MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
Tuesday19.03.2024Pathology of the biliary tract and pancreas MUDr. Jan Stříteský, CSc. 
Thursday21.03.2024Breast pathology. Gynecologic pathology I. prof. MUDr. Pavel Dundr, Ph.D. 
Tuesday26.03.2024Gynecologic pathology II. prof. MUDr. Pavel Dundr, Ph.D. 
Thursday28.03.2024Dean´s Day  
Tuesday02.04.2024Gynecologic pathology III. prof. MUDr. Pavel Dundr, Ph.D. 
Thursday04.04.2024Pathology of the urinary system I doc. MUDr. Eva Honsová, Ph.D. 
Tuesday09.04.2024Pathology of the urinary system II prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday11.04.2024Pathology of the male genital system prof. MUDr. Ctibor Povýšil, DrSc. 
Tuesday16.04.2024Pathology of the pregnancy doc. MUDr. Kristýna Němejcová, Ph.D. 
Thursday18.04.2024Pathology of the newborn MUDr. Helena Skálová, Ph.D. 
Tuesday23.04.2024Pathology of the CNS I prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday25.04.2024Pathology of the CNS II prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Tuesday30.04.2024Pathology of the CNS III prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday02.05.2024Pathology of the locomotory system I prof. MUDr. Ctibor Povýšil, DrSc. 
Tuesday07.05.2024Pathology of the locomotory system II prof. MUDr. Ctibor Povýšil, DrSc. 
Thursday09.05.2024Pathology of endocrine glands I prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Tuesday14.05.2024Rector´s Day  
průměr: 3, hodnoceno: 1x
Thursday16.05.2024Pathology of endocrine glands II prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Tuesday21.05.2024Pathology of endocrine glands III prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
Thursday23.05.2024Pathology of the skin I prof. MUDr. Ctibor Povýšil, DrSc. 
Tuesday28.05.2024Pathology of the skin II prof. MUDr. Ctibor Povýšil, DrSc. 
Thursday30.05.2024Significance of the biopsy diagnostics. Diagnostic cytopathology prof. MUDr. Jaroslava Dušková, CSc. 
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