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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Biology and Genetics 2 - B83121 (General Medicine - English parallel)
Title: Biology and Genetics 2
Guaranteed by: Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics First Faculty of Medicine Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague (11-00160)
Faculty: First Faculty of Medicine
Actual: from 2023
Semester: winter
Points: 11
E-Credits: 11
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/3, C+Ex [HT]
Extent per academic year: 75 [hours]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: doc. MUDr. František Liška, Ph.D. ;
Additional information:
Old code: 360
Note: prefer medical statement
Guarantor: prof. MUDr. Ondřej Šeda, Ph.D.
Comes under: Compulsory for GM 2.y._23/24
Attributes: Lékařství
Teoretický předmět
Pre-requisite : B83009
Interchangeability : B80360
Is co-requisite for: B83162, B83161, B80382
Is pre-requisite for: B81311
Annotation -
Last update: Ing. Vladislava Kohútová (07.01.2019)
Molecular biology and genetics. Immunogenetics. Genetics of ontogenesis. Oncogenetics. Evolution mechanisms. Ecogenetics. Medical genetics.
Last update: Jana Kolářová (10.02.2020)

Mutations and their repair mechanisms

Molecular basis of genetic diseases

Methods of DNA analysis, gene mapping, DNA libraries, functional genomics

DNA diagnostics, direct, indirect, impact on medicine

Gene manipulations, gene therapy, its perspectives

Population Genetics, population equilibrium, factors influencing equilibrium, consanguinity, small populations, medical relevance

Immunogenetics I - genetics of alloantigenic make up of organisms (blood groups, HLA)

Immunogenetics II - immune response genetics

Genetic programming of ontogenesis

Teratogenesis - teratogens, prevention and diagnostics of congenital defects

Oncogenetics I - genetic characteristics of tumor cells, protooncogenes

Oncogenetics II - tumor supressor genes, mutator genes, presymptomatic diagnostics of cancer

Medical genetics, impact on medicine

Gene expression in its normal state and in pathology

Practical exercises:

Introduction to population genetics

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selection, and mutation

Migration, small populations, genetic drift

Molecular Genetics I. DNA, RNA, proteins, and DNA variability

Molecular Genetics II. PCR, Sanger sequencing, direct DNA diagnostics

Molecular Genetics III. Next-generation sequencing, direct DNA diagnostics continued

Molecular Genetics IV. Indirect DNA diagnostics

Forensic identification of individuals by molecular genetics methods

Immunogenetics I: histocompatibility systems, transplantation principles

Immunogenetics II: Microscopical preparations demonstrating syngenic and alogenic transplantations of skin, kidney and tumor tissues. HLA - disease associations.

Developmental Genetics, Teratogens


Principles of the genetic counselling, risk evaluation, indication of preventive measures.

Literature -
Last update: prof. MUDr. Ondřej Šeda, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)

Entry requirements -
Last update: prof. MUDr. Ondřej Šeda, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)

On the day of the first practical training the students should come to the room " Rotunda" of the Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics of the 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General Hospital, located: Prague 2, Albertov 4 (" Purkinje Institute"), ground floor to the right, bringing with:

b) exercise book for practical protocols ( A4 format recommended )

A lab coat or extra shoes are not obligatory.

Course completion requirements
Last update: prof. MUDr. Ondřej Šeda, Ph.D. (02.11.2023)

Examination rules for students of General Medicine

Rules for performance of examination at the Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics in the subject Biology and Genetics 2 (B83121) - academic year 2023/2024

Specifying the examination dates

The final examination is required to complete the subject Biology and Genetics 2 (B83121) in the winter semester.

The examination dates are set during the regular examination period of the winter semester. All dates are entered in the SIS, together with the information specifying the start of registration and the deadlines for (de)registraion.

The following list of examination dates and times (also called “terms”) is final.

· Pre-term will take place on January 16th, 2024, at 13:00.

· Terms in the regular examination period of the winter semester (from January 22nd to February 16th, 2024).

· During the second half of March, further terms will be announced for the regular examination period of the summer semester, for the summer holiday time (second half of August), and for the second part of the regular examination period (beginning of September). No further terms apart from those mentioned above will be announced.

Rules for registration for exams and cancellation

The start dates and times of registration for examination dates will be entered in SIS. For the pre-term and regular terms, registration is possible starting November 16th, 2023 (18:00)

Registration for particular examination dates (“terms”) will be possible up to 1 day prior to the date of the exam.

Cancellation of the registration for the preterm will be possible till January 14th, 2023 (22:00). Cancellation of the registration for the regular terms will be possible up to 1 day prior to the date of the exam (e.g. the registration for exam on Thursday Jan 25th may be cancelled till Tuesday Jan 23th, 10 p.m.)

Registration for an exam is not conditional upon obtaining the credit but taking the exam is, apart from the credit in the given subject, also limited by completion of any subject that is specified as a (pre)requisite. A student who fails to meet the given requisites will be deleted from the list for the term before examination, of which he/she will be informed by e-mail. This deletion will not reduce the number of terms further available for the student. A student can only take the exam if registered for the term in SIS, and when all requisites for the exam have been met.

Requirements for obtaining credit:

1. Successful completion (passing) of all three tests.

2. Presence at the practical training sessions.

Failure to turn up for examination and apology

The student who fails to turn up for the examination that he/she has registered for without prior apology, forfeits the examination term without receiving a mark.

After forfeiting an examination term, the student can register for another examination date. A belated apology can be accepted only in case of serious and documented circumstances. The guarantor of the subject decides on the appropriateness of the apology (see Rules of Study at the First Faculty of Medicine of Charles University). The student must apologise to the principal teacher of the subject (or to the person authorized by the latter) in writing or in electronic mail, giving and substantiating the reasons for the apology. The guarantor of the subject can request specification of the apology or its reasons if he/she finds the apology insufficient.


A student can take an examination in a subject for three times as a maximum, i.e. the student is entitled to two re-examinations, and no extraordinary terms beyond that are allowed (Regulations, Article 6, Subsection 16). However, if the student does not exploit the above options within the set examination dates, this does not entitle him/her to a special date of examination to be appointed for him/her personally (ibid.). No more examination dates (“terms”) will be set. Further, no examinations can be taken after the end of the second part of the regular examination period in September, or after the last announced term.

Rules pertaining to the course of examination.

The final examination from Biology and Genetics 2 will be an in-person, two-step exam, comprising a written exam test followed by the oral exam. Failure to meet the minimal criteria for the exam test entitles the examiner to end the exam and to grade the attempt as “fail”. The students who successfully pass the written exam test then draw a triplet of exam questions. After 15-20 minutes of preparation, the students take the oral exam. Failure to answer one of the three questions in a satisfactory manner entitles the examiner to end the exam and to grade the attempt as “fail” (see Code of study and examination, Part 2, Article 8 -

If a student passes the practical exam and subsequently fails the oral exam, he/she will only sit for the oral exam in the following re-takes. Exam questions and recommended study materials are published using SIS and the web page of the Institute.

November 2nd, 2023

Prof. Ondřej Šeda, M.D., Ph.D.

Head of Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics


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