Poslední úprava: BURIANKO (26.04.2005)
Poslední úprava: Irena Zemenová (11.10.2010)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY
1. Rang-Dale-Ritter: Pharmacology - 6th Edit., (Churchill - Livingstone).
2. Dale - Haylett: Pharmacology Condensed, (Churchill - Livingstone)
3. British National Formulary (latest edition)
1. H.P.Rang, M.M.Dale, P.K.Moore: Pharmacology (Churchill Livingstone)
2. M.M.Dale, D.G. Haylett: Pharmacology condensed (Churchill Livingstone)
3. A.J.Trevor, B.G.Katzung, S.B.Masters: Katzung and Trevor?s Pharmacology McGraw - Hill
Poslední úprava: Irena Zemenová (22.05.2018)
Attendance at seminars, passing two interim tests, oral presentation covering latest news in pharmacy and therapeutics, submission of computer simulated experiments report
and passing a credit test (covering the materials from the seminars) are compulsory. There is one regular date and two resit dates for the credit test.
Credit in SIS and signed credit in Credit Book is needed.
Poslední úprava: Irena Zemenová (02.11.2010)
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY
Pharmacology, toxicology, clinical pharmacology, pharmacotherapy, pharmacy, pharmacognosy, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomy.
Drugs. Sources of drugs. Names of drugs. Use of pharmacological agents in medicine. Drug formulations. Combination products in oral therapy.
Pharmacopoeia. Prescription writing. Prescription of CD, POM. OTC drugs. Proprietary and nonproprietary remedies and drugs. Prescribing for children and old patients. Drugs and pregnancy.
Pharmacokinetics models. Single- two- and multicompartment system. Linear and nonlinear kinetics. Zero and first order kinetics. Plasma half life, clearence, elimination constants, Vd. Bateman function. AUC. Continuous or intermittent drug administration. Infusion. Accumulation of drugs. Plateau-Css. Loading and maintenance dose.
Drug administration. Lipid solubility and ionization of drugs. Fick?s-law. Movement of drugs across cellular barriers. Encephalic barrier. Placenta. Special drug delivery systems. Transdermal dosage forms. Absorption, distribution and redistribution of drugs. Bioavailability. Binding of drugs to plasma proteins. Volume of distribution. Elimination of drugs. Biotransformation of drugs. Phases. Microsomal, non-microsomal biotransformation. Cyt. P-450. Enzymes inhibition and induction. Excretion of drugs (renal, extrarenal). Enterohepatic circulation. First pass metabolism. Prodrugs.
Drug action. Selective, non-selective action. Mechanisms of action.. Primary drug target (receptors, channels, enzymes, carriers). G proteins, second messengers. Agonists. Dose - effects relationship. Efficacy, potency. Antagonists. Drug antagonism and synergism. Partial agonism. Competitive and noncompetitive antagonism. Physiological and chemical antagonism.
Factors influencing drug kinetics and dynamics. Genetics and ethnic factors. Pharmacogenetics. Genetic polymorphism.
Interaction of drugs. Interaction drug - food.
Unwanted and adverse effects of drugs. Therap. index. Tolerance. Tachyphylaxis. Overdose. Resistance. Drug allergy and idiosyncrasy. Drug hypersensitivity. Teratogenicity. Carcinogenicity. Treatment of poisonings. Antidotes.
Drug misuse and dependence. Absence SY.
Drug origin, discovery and development. Preclinical and clinical trials. Phases. Double-blind trials. Placebo. Drug registration. Therapeutic drugs monitoring. Use of drugs in neonates. Use of drug in children. Drugs and the elderly. Drug during pregnancy and breast-feeding.
Drug - disease interaction. Influence of concomitant disease on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (disease of git, kidneys, liver, heart, CNS, thyroid gl.) Therapeutic risk. Rational pharmacotherapy. Compliance (adherence).
Peripheral nervous system and its transmitters.
The autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic. Sympathetic. Enteric nervous system. Neurotransmitters, co-transmitters.
Cholinergic transmission. Acetylcholine synthesis, storage, release. Drugs affecting these events. Muscarinic receptors - agonists, antagonists. Nicotinic receptors - agonists, antagonists. Nicotine. Ganglion blocking agents.
Cholinesterases. Anticholinesterases. Organophosphates. Treatment of Org.ph. Intoxication. Reactivators of cholinesterases.
Neuromuscular blocking agents. Drugs influencing skeletomuscles spasms and spasticity. Dantrolen, baclofen etc.
Noradrenergic transmission. Events in the adrenergic varicosity. Catecholamines, biotransformation. Uptake of NA. Adrenoceptors (alpha 1, alpha 2), agonists and antagonists. Selectivity and ISA. NA NC transmitters.
Treatment of glaucoma. Mydriatics and cycloplegics. Miotics.
5-HT (serotonin), receptors, function.
Treatment of migraine. Purine mediators and receptors. Peptides.
Nitric oxide. NO synthase. Nitrates. Donors of NO.
Prostanoids and their analogs. COX 1 and COX 2. NSAIDs. Analgesics and antipyretics. DMARDs. Treatment of gout. Histamine. Antihistamines (anti H1).
Drug action in CNS, targets of drugs in CNS, CNS transmitters. CNS - amino acid transmitters. Glutamate, glycine, strychnine, tetanotoxin.
Drug in Parkinson?s disease. Drug for Alzheimer?s disease and dementia. Nootropic drugs. Cerebral vasodilators.
General anaesthetics. Inhalation an. Intravenous an. Stages of anaesthesia. Perioperative drugs.
Anxiolytics and hypnotics.
Drugs in affective disorders. Antidepressant drugs. Drugs for bipolar disorder. Antiepileptic drugs.
Analgesic drugs and control of pain (opiates, opioids).
Drug dependence and drug abuse. Nicotine and tabaco smoking. Ethanol. Methanol intoxication. Cannabinoids. Benzodiazepines. Barbiturates.
CNS stimulants and psychotomimetics (hallucinogens). Cocaine. Amphetamines. Methylxanthines. Analeptics. Hallucinogens (e.g. LSD).
Drugs for treatment of heart failure - vasodilators, diuretics, inotropic agents. Antidysrhytmics. V.W. classification. Adenosine, digoxin, magnesium. Antihypertensive drugs. Diuretics, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Ca - antagonists. Renin - angiotensin system. ACE inhibitors. Activators of K-channels. Vasodilatators generally, vasoconstrictors.
Drug used in angina pectoris - organic nitrates, calcium antagonists, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, nicorandil. Drugs used to treat myocardial infarction. Drugs used in pulmonary hypertension.
Atherosclerosis and lipoproteins. Lipid lowering drugs - statins, fibrates, bile acid - binding resin, inhibition of cholesterol absorption.
Hemostasis and thrombosis. Vitamin K. Anticoagulations - heparin, low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs). Warfarin.
Antiplatelet agents. Fibrinolytic drugs. Antifibrinolytics and haemostatics.
The haemopoetics system. Anemias. Iron. Folic acid. Vitamin B12..Erythropoietine. Haemopoetic growth factors. Myeloid growth factors.
Drugs in treatment of asthma - bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory agents. Drugs in chronic bronchitis, expectorants, cough suppressants.
Diuretics incl. subclasses. Treatment of gastro duodenal ulcers. Emesis and antiemetics. Prokinetics. Treatment of diarrhoea, constipation, gallstones. Drugs affecting biliary composition and flow. Liver protective drugs. Treatment of chronic bowel diseases. Antispasmodics. Pancreatin.
Treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 DM. Insulins and oral antidiabetics. Treatment of obesity.
The male reproductive system. Androgens and antiandrogens. Anabolic steroids. Erectile dysfunction. Phosphodiesterases. Sildenafil and relative drugs. Drugs for BHP.
Hormones of hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Posterior pituitary hormones.
Thyroid hormones. Drugs influencing activity of thyroid.
Glucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoids. Drug acting on corticosteroids synthesis.
Bone metabolism and its disorders. Calcium homeostasis. Drug influencing bone metabolism.
The reproductive system. Female sex hormones. Contraceptive drugs. Postmenopause hormone replacement therapy. Gonadotrophines.
Drugs acting on the uterus.
Antibacterial agents. Their targets. Resistance to antibiotics. Penicillins. Cephalosporins, cephamycins. Other beta-lactams. Glycopeptides. Aminoglycosides. Macrollides. Tetracyclines. Chloramphenicol. Clindomycin. Fluoroquinolones. Streptogramins. Lincosamides. Oxalisidonones. Fusidic acid. Miscelaneous - vancomycin (glycopeptides), colistin (polymycins). Chemotherapy of git and urinary tract infections.
Sulphonamides. Trimethoprim. Antituberculosis drugs. Antileprosy agents.
Antifungal drugs. Anthelmintic drugs. Antiviral drugs (anti HIV, other antiviral drugs). Immunosuppressive drugs. Immunomodulators.
Animalarial drugs. Amoebicidal drugs. Treatment of other protozoal infections.
Anticancer drugs. Combinations. Treatment schedules. Cell cycle and anticancer drugs. Rules for administrator. Adverse effects. Treatment of adverse effects.
Alkylating drugs. Antimetabolites. Cytotoxic antibiotics. Plant derivatives. Hormones in cancer therapy. Radioactive isotopes. Miscellaneous agents.
Vitamins - water soluble, lipid soluble. Antioxidants. Essential elements - Se, Zn, Mg.
Lead-, mercury-, arsenic- intoxication. Antidotes of metal and metalloids intoxications.
The main preparations in dermatology.