SubjectsSubjects(version: 916)
Course, academic year 2022/2023
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Human Morphology and Physiology - GAF181
Title: Human Morphology and Physiology
Guaranteed by: Department of Biological and Medical Sciences (16-16150)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2022
Semester: winter
Points: 0
E-Credits: 8
Examination process: winter s.:oral
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:56/28, C+Ex [HS]
Capacity: unlimited / 60 (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: (F,2.r.)
Note: deregister from the exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: doc. PharmDr. Miloslav Hronek, Ph.D.
Classification: >
Comes under: 2. úsek 2022/23 AJ
Co-requisite : GAF141, GAF143
Pre-requisite : GAF283
Is co-requisite for: GAF309, GAF184, GAF155, GAF143, GAF141, GAF137
Annotation -
Last update: doc. PharmDr. Miloslav Hronek, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)
This subject is a summary of basic knowledge of the human body. Describes morphology dealing with the description of the human body in the form of a macroscopic view (anatomy) or microscopic structure (histology). Medical Physiology is a science that deals with a comprehensive interpretation of the physical and biochemical activity of a healthy organism, both at the level of the whole and of the individual systems, organs, tissues, and cells. This subject is a summary of the basic knowledge of each health worker.
Course completion requirements -
Last update: doc. PharmDr. Miloslav Hronek, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)

Rules for the credit  11 test (5 points from each test, 2 review tests each for 7 points) maximum 59 points  Minimum points are needed for the credit 35 (60%), otherwise, summary credit test will be necessary (20 questions from the whole semester) o There will be 3 dates for credit test in winter semester only  No absence in the practical classes (exception max 2 absences due to illness, otherwise - credit is impossible)  In case of missing in the class → o Missing for illness – paper from the physician o The compensation of an absence – seminar work  Late arrival at practical classes (5 or more minutes late) means extra seminar work.  DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOUR DURING THE PRACTICAL CLASSES DISQUALIFICATION FROM PRACTICALS.  2 DISQUALIFICATIONS - TO GET A CREDIT IS IMPOSSIBLE.

Literature - Czech
Last update: doc. PharmDr. Miloslav Hronek, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)


  • Tortora, Gerard J. Derrickson, Bryan. Principles of anatomy and physiology. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, 2011, 2 s. ISBN 978-0-470-14113-7.
  • Waugh, A., Grant, A.. Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness. Edinburg: Elsevier, 2011, s. ISBN .

Syllabus -
Last update: doc. PharmDr. Miloslav Hronek, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)


Cytology and general histology

  • definition, status among the biological sciences
  • its importance in teaching and research in pharmaceutical professions
  • cell structures and their functions
  • types of intercellular junction
  • types of tissues and their origins
  • general anatomical nomenclature, topographical relations within the body

Osteology, myology

  • nomenclature
  • the skeletal system, articulations
  • the muscular system

Heart, angiology

  • structure and location of the heart
  • overview of the organisation of the vascular and lymphatic systems
  • organs of formation and obstruction of haematological particles (organs RES)

The respiratory system, its organisation and location

  • nose
  • pharynx, larynx
  • trachea, bronchi
  • lungs

The digestive system, its organisation and location

  • mouth, oesophagus
  • stomach
  • small intestine
  • large intestine
  • pancreas, gallbladder

The urinary system, its organisation and location

  • kidney
  • ureters, urinary bladder
  • urethra

The reproductive systems

  • male reproductive system
  • female reproductivesystem
  • embryonic development

Endocrine gland

  • hypophysis
  • thyroid gland
  • parathyroid glands
  • pancreas
  • adrenal glands
  • pineal gland
  • thymus gland

Nervous system

  • brain
  • spinal cord
  • spinal and cranial nerves
  • sensory and motor pathways
  • the autonomic nervous system
  • the general and special senses


Introduction to fysiology

  • definition
  • its importance in teaching and research in pharmaceutical professions

General physiology, blood, lymph, RES

  • general problems of homeostasis
  • physiological experiments
  • experimental animals
  • functions and characteristics of blood
  • components of blood (plasma, formed elements)
  • coagulation, fibrinolysis
  • blood grouping (ABO, Rh)
  • lymph, RES

The cardiovascular system

  • cardiac cycle
  • blood flow, blood pressure
  • cardiac output (frequency, contractility ...)
  • pacemaker and conduction system
  • electrocardiography
  • control of cardiovascular system
  • lymphatic system, imunity´

The respiratory system

  • pulmonary ventilation (inspiration, exspiration)
  • pulmonary aír volumes and capacities
  • exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide, their transport
  • control of respiration

The digestive system

  • physiology of the digestion in the mouth, oesophagus
  • digestion in the stomach (mechanical, chemical), its regulation
  • digestion in the small and large íntestine, absorption
  • faeces, defecation
  • liver and gallbladder, bile
  • pancreas, pancreatic juice

Metabolisms, muscular system

  • carbohydrate, lipid, protein metabolism
  • Krebs cycle, enzymes of Krebs cycle
  • coupling of anabolism and catabolism by ATP
  • basal metabolism
  • body heat (production, measuring, loss)
  • minerals, water
  • vitamins
  • contraction of muscle - role of contraction proteins, of calcium, regulator proteins,
  • ATP, phosphates, lactic acid etc.
  • isometric and isotonic contractions

The reproductive systems, pregnancy

  • male reproduetive system, hormonal regulation
  • female reproductive system, phases of female reproductive cycle, hormonal regulation
  • physiology of reproduction and ageing
  • sexual act
  • pregnancy: embryonic development, hormones of pregnancy, gestation
  • parturition and labor
  • lactation

The urinary system

  • glomerular filtration
  • tubular reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubule
  • the loop of Henle - its purpose
  • tubular reabsorption and secretion in distal convoluted tubule
  • evaluation of kidney function
  • urine, its volume and composition
  • function of urethers, urinary bladder, urethra

The endocrine system

  • comparison of nervous and endocrine systems
  • mechanism of hormonal action
  • circulating and local hormones
  • hypothalamus and pituitary gland (hypophysis), anterior and posterior pituitary gland
  • thyroid gland
  • parathyroid glands
  • adrenal (suprarenal) glands
  • pancreas
  • ovaries and testes
  • pineal gland
  • thymus gland
  • other endocrine tissues
  • eicosanoids, growth factors, stress and the general adaptation syndrome

Physiology of nervous systém

  • general neurophysiology
  • regeneratíon of the nervous tissue
  • the general and the special senses
  • the spinal cord
  • the brain
  • the cranial and spinal nerves
  • physiology of sensory pathways
  • physiology of motoric pathways

physiology of the autonomic nervous system

Learning resources -
Last update: doc. PharmDr. Miloslav Hronek, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)

Study material (intranet):

Teaching methods -
Last update: doc. PharmDr. Miloslav Hronek, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)


Practical Training


Requirements to the exam -
Last update: doc. PharmDr. Miloslav Hronek, Ph.D. (23.09.2022)

Conditions for examination from Human Morphology and Physiology

1. To pass the Credit.

2. The examination consists of Pre-exam test and Oral examination

3. Pre-exam Test is written in day of examination before Oral examination only

4. To pass of a Pre-exam test is condition for Oral examination

5. Absence on Oral examination after the pass of Pre-exam test causes loss of one term

6. A registration for the examination on SIS only.



Pre-exam test:

 questions from the practical training and lectures,

 40 questions from the whole semester from both Morphology and Physiology,

 30 points is minimum for the pass of the test,

 2 chances are available in order to pass the Pre exam test,

 each failure in the Pre-exam test causes the loss of one term


Rules for oral examination:

 after the 2 nd failure at the Pre-exam test, student could enrol directly to the last 3 rd term (oral examination),

 questions for the oral examination are placed on the website (Study material for students),

 3 questions 1 from morphology and 2 from physiology,

 the examination will take place in teacher´s office at the Department of Biological and Medical Sciences.

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