SubjectsSubjects(version: 953)
Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Pathological Physiology for Pharmacists - GAF137
Title: Pathological Physiology for Pharmacists
Guaranteed by: Department of Biological and Medical Sciences (16-16150)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2021
Semester: summer
Points: 0
E-Credits: 7
Examination process: summer s.:oral
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:42/28, C+Ex [HS]
Capacity: unlimited / unlimited (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: (F,2.r.)
Note: deregister from the exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: prof. PharmDr. Petr Nachtigal, Ph.D.
Classification: >
Comes under: 2.ročník 2023/24 Pharmacy (EN19)
Co-requisite : GAF181
Is co-requisite for: GAF309, GAF155, GAF184
Is pre-requisite for: GAF339
Annotation -
The subject Pathological physiology for Pharmacists comprises the general knowledge of pathological morphology and physiology, followed by the fundamentals of pathophysiological and all clinical manifestations of diseases the relation to pharmacy and drug use and effects.
Last update: Nachtigal Petr, prof. PharmDr., Ph.D. (14.02.2024)
Course completion requirements



Ø  There is a maximum of two absences in the seminar classes.

o   Absences in seminar classes can be excused only by an official medical document in English or the Czech language.

Ø  Suppose there are more than two absences (the official medical document in English or Czech language must excuse all absences). In that case, the student must write and pass an extra written credit test to obtain credit from the subject.

o   A credit test is a written test with 20 questions for the whole subject (multiple choice, only one correct answer) performed in the last week of the summer semester.

o   Students must gain at least 14 points in order to pass the credit test and obtain the credit.

o   There are three maximum attempts to pass the credit test. If a student fails to pass a credit test, the student cannot pass the subject this academic year.

Ø  In order to obtain the credit for this subject, the student must present Seminar Work as a PowerPoint oral (speech) presentation.

o   Two students will give the PowerPoint presentation.

o   Students will create a couple of pairs with other students and choose the topic for the presentation from the list of available topics.

o   Each presentation takes a minimum of 12 and a maximum of 15 minutes and contains a minimum of 15 and a maximum of 20 slides (see the sample presentation in the study materials).

o   Each student from the couple will present exactly half the presentation (half of the slides).

o   The presentation must use bullet points, simple schemes, or pictures.

o   Students must not read the presentation but comment on the bullet points, simple schemes, and pictures.

o   Students must not have any paper to read from or any other device to help during the presentation.

o   If students (couple) fail to follow these rules, they will have to choose another topic and prepare a new presentation.

o   If students fail for the second time, they cannot obtain the credit this academic year and cannot pass the exam this academic year.

o   If a student couple cannot present the seminar work (in case of illness or any other reason), they will present the presentation on a different day.


Ø  Late arrival at seminars (5 or more minutes late 2 times and more) means extra written credit test.



Ø  Obtaining the credit is necessary in order to participate and pass the exam.

Ø  There is an oral exam only

Ø  Registration for exams is possible only via the SIS system

Ø  The student will choose 2 questions from the list of questions for Pathological Physiology (available in Study materials)

Ø  Teachers might ask additional questions from different areas of Pathological physiology

Ø  All chosen and asked questions are equal with respect to the validity of the exam and exam results (exam mark)

Last update: Nachtigal Petr, prof. PharmDr., Ph.D. (14.02.2024)
Literature - Czech


  • Huether, Sue E. McCane, Kathryn L. (eds.). Understanding pathophysiology. Saint Louis: Mosby, 2000, 1196 s. ISBN 0-323-00791-0.
  • Kaufman, Christian E. McKee, Patrick A. (eds.). Essentials of pathophysiology. Boston : Philadelphia: Little, Brown and company ; Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, , 799 s. ISBN 0-316-48405-9.

Last update: Nachtigal Petr, prof. PharmDr., Ph.D. (14.02.2024)
Syllabus -
  • Necrosis, pathophysiology, types of necrosis
  • Atrophy, pathophysiology, types of atrophy
  • Dystrophy, pathophysiology, types of dystrophy
  • Thrombosis, pathophysiology, types of thrombi
  • Pathophysiology of edema, embolism, metastasis, pathophysiology
  • Hyperemia, ischemia, hemorrhage, pathophysiology
  • Tumors, terminology, benign and malignant tumors
  • Anemia, causation of anemia
  • Leukopenia and leukocytosis
  • Leukemias, pathophysiology, types of leukemia
  • Inflammation, microscopic manifestation of inflammation, mediators of inflammation
  • Disorders of the primary hemostasis
  • Disorders of hemocoagulation
  • Ischemic heart disease, causation, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction
  • Arterial Hypertension, pathophysiology, pathophysiology
  • Pulmonary hypertension, Cor Pulmonale
  • Arrhythmia, pathophysiology, types of arrhythmia
  • Cardiac failure, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Atherosclerosis, risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Dyspepsia of stomach and gut
  • Acute gastritis, pathophysiology
  • Peptic ulcer disease, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, pathophysiology
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Crohn´s disease, pathophysiology, pathophysiology
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Pancreatitis, pathophysiology, pathophysiology
  • Liver insufficiency, consequences of the liver insufficiency
  • Acute and chronic bronchitis, pathophysiology
  • Emphysema and bronchiectasis
  • Asthma, pathophysiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Respiratory failure, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Lung cancer
  • Glomerulonephritis, pathophysiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Nephrotic/nephritic syndrome, pathophysiology
  • Acute renal failure, causation, clinical manifestation
  • Chronic renal failure, causation, clinical manifestation
  • Diabetes mellitus, types, acute and chronic clinical manifestation
  • Metabolic syndrome, characterization, clinical manifestation
  • Alteration of hypothalamic – pituitary system
  • Alteration of thyroid gland – hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism
  • Addison disease, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Hyperaldosteronism (Conn Syndrome), pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, Pheochromocytoma, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Cushing syndrome, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Alterations of water metabolism, dehydratation, hyperhydration
  • Alterations of ions balance, sodium, potassium
  • Acidosis, pathophysiology, types of acidosis, compensation, clinical manifestation
  • Alkalosis, pathophysiology, types of alkalosis, compensation, clinical manifestation
  • Osteoporosis, osteomalacia, clinical manifestation
  • Fracture, bursitis, dislocation
  • Osteoarthrosis, rheumatoid arthritis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Acute rheumatic fever
  • Low back pain
  • Gout
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus, pathophysiology, clinical complication
  • Amenorrhoea and dysmenorhea, pathophysiology
  • Cervical and brest cancers
  • Infertility
  • Preeclampsia
  • Prostatic disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Anxiety Disorders, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Depression, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Bipolar affective disorder
  • Schizofrenia, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Multiple sclerosis, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Epilepsy, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation
  • Parkinson’s disease, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation


Last update: Nachtigal Petr, prof. PharmDr., Ph.D. (14.02.2024)
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