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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Cell Biology - GAF387
Title: Cell Biology
Guaranteed by: Department of Biological and Medical Sciences (16-16150)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2023
Semester: winter
Points: 0
E-Credits: 4
Examination process: winter s.:written
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:28/0, Ex [HS]
Capacity: unlimited / unknown (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: 1.roč. F
Note: course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D.
Incompatibility : GAF283
Interchangeability : GAF007, GAF283
Is co-requisite for: GAF366
Is pre-requisite for: GAF181
Is interchangeable with: GAF283
Annotation -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)
The main goal of Cell Biology is to reveal to the students how the living cell works which will give them the background for the subjects in the upcoming years. For that, we introduce them to the structure and function of every single compartment of the cell and its chemical composition. Other areas such as cell communication, cell division, and regulation of the cell cycle are studied. Themes: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, membranes, membrane organelles, DNA and chromosomes, cell communication, cell cycle, reproduction of organisms.
Course completion requirements -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)

The final exam test is in written form and is composed of 35-40 questions. Types of questions: single best answer, matching, fill in or image description.

The limit for passing the test is minimally 70% of correct answers:

  • Excellent: 100 % - 90 %
  • Great: 89 % - 80 %
  • Good: 79 % - 70 %

If the student regularly studies using the  Cell biology course in Moodle, he/she can obtain up to 2.5 bonus points for the exam test.

Literature -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)


Syllabus -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)

Cell structure

·         definition and general characteristics of a cell (cell theory)

·         structure of prokaryotic cell

·         structure of eukaryotic cell (plant and animal)


Chemical composition of living systems

·         water and inorganic substances

·         low molecular weight organic molecules: saccharides, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, phospholipids

·         high molecular weight organic molecules: polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids


Nucleic acids and chromosomes I

·         structure of DNA

·         chromosome structure in prokaryotes and viruses

·         chromosome structure in eukaryotes


Nucleic acids and chromosomes II

·         replication

·         transcription

·         translation


Membranes I

·      membrane structure

o   lipid bilayer

o   molecular structure of membranes – lipids, proteins, saccharides

·      cytoplasmic membrane


Membranes II

·           membrane transport

·           carrier proteins

·           ion channels and the electrical properties of membranes


Membrane organelles I

·         mitochondria

o   the structure

o   cellular respiration – Krebs cycle, electron-transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

·         chloroplasts

o   the structure

o   photosynthesis – light reactions and dark reactions


Membrane organelles II

·         endoplasmic reticulum

·         Golgi apparatus

·         endosomes

·         lysosomes

·         peroxisomes

·         intracellular vesicular transport

o   transport from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi apparatus

o   transport from the trans Golgi network to lysosomes

o   transport into the cell from the plasma membrane: endocytosis

o   transport from the trans Golgi network to the cell exterior: exocytosis


Cell communications

·         general principles of cell communication

·         signal molecules

·         receptors

o   ion-channel–coupled receptors

o   G-protein–coupled receptors

o   enzyme–coupled receptors


Cell division

·         cell cycle - four phases (G1, S, G2, M)

·         mitosis - prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

·         meiosis


Cell cycle control system 

·         regulation of the cell cycle

·         cell differentiation

·         cell death


Reproduction of organisms

  • asexual reproduction
    • characteristics
    • binary fission, vegetative reproduction, amitosis
  • sexual reproduction
    • characteristics
    • gametogenesis - spermatogenesis, oogenesis, fertilization
Teaching methods -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)

Lectures - theory

Moodle - videos, "quizzes", "questions and answers", make-up own "glossary"

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)

The student should show knowledge across the subject of Cell Biology, specifically in the following areas:

1.      Definition and general characteristics of cell

2.      Structure of prokaryotic cell

3.      Structure of eukaryotic cell 

4.      Cell nucleus

5.      Structure of DNA

6.      Chromosome structure in prokaryotes and viruses

7.      Chromosome structure in eukaryotes

8.      Replication, transcription and translation

9.      Structure of living systems – water, inorganic substances, low molecular weight organic molecules (saccharides, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, phospholipids)

10.  Structure of living systems – high molecular weight organic molecules (polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids)

11.  Membrane structure

12.  Cytoplasmic membrane

13.  Membrane transport (carrier proteins, ion channels)

14.  Mitochondria (structure, cellular respiration)

15.  Chloroplasts (structure, photosynthesis)

16.  Endoplasmic reticulum

17.  Golgi apparatus

18.  Endosomes

19.  Lysosomes

20.  Peroxisomes

21.  Intracellular vesicular transport

22.  General principles of cell communications

23.  Receptors (basic characteristics, signalling cascade)

24.  Ion-channel–coupled receptors

25.  G-protein–coupled receptors

26.  Enzyme–coupled receptors

27.  Microtubules

28.  Actin filaments

29.  Intermediate filaments

30.  Cell cycle

31.  Mitosis

32.  Meiosis

33.  Cell cycle control system

34.  Cell differentiation

35.  Cell death

36.  Cell stress

37.  Asexual reproduction

38.  Spermatogenesis

39.  Oogenesis

40.  Fertilization

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