Poslední úprava: Mgr. Klára Synková (30.01.2008)
Discrimination in its various forms and manifestations has been made illegal through the recent EU anti-discrimination directives. However how does the local reception of the European efforts looks like? Could the human rights discourse be stereotypical as well? The course aims to enable students to think about different policies, being able to describe contexts of their appearance and the ways policies are accommodated through practice.
Poslední úprava: PhDr. Věra Tomandlová (08.04.2008)
Brubaker, Rogers (2002). Ethnicity without Groups. Archives Européenes de Sociologie XLIII : 163-189.
Marushiakova, Elena ? Popov, Vesselin (2004). The Roma between the Skylla of Marginalization and the Charybdis of Exotization. In: Social and Cultural Diversity in Central and Eastern Europe: Old Factors and New, Seminar proceedings, Prague, October 2004. Multicultural centre Prague. Pp. 6-9.
2.2 Oprea, Alexandra (2005). The Arranged Marriage of Ana Maria Cioaba, Intra-Community Oppression and Romani Feminist Ideals: Transcending the ?Primitive Culture? Argument. European Journal of Women's Studies. 12(2):133?148. Sage Publication.
2.3 Young, Jock (2003). Social Exclusion. Available at: http://www.malcolmread.co.uk/JockYoung/social_exclusion.pdf . Pp. 1-5
2.4 Marushiakova, Elena ? Popov, Vesselin (2001). Historical and ethnographic background: Gypsies, Roma and Sinti. In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 33-53.
3.1 Kovats, Martin (2001). The Emergence of European Roma Policy. In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 93-116.
3.2 Guglielmo, Rachel and Waters, Timothy William (2005). Migrating Towards Minority Status: Shifting European Policy towards Roma. In JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. Vol. 43. Issue 4. November 2005, pp. 763?86, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/jcms/43/4.
3.3 Simhandl, Katrin (2004). ?Western Gypsies and Travellers? ? ?Eastern Roma?: The Creation of Political Objects by the Institutions of the European Union. Paper presented at the Fifth Pan-European Conference, The Hague, September 9-11, 2004 Section 21: Dialogue In/On International Relations.
4.1 Sobotka, Eva (2004). Human Rights and Policy Formation towards Roma in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. Tel Aviv: Stephen Roth Institute.
4.2 Vermeersch, Peter (2003). ?EU Enlargement and Minority Rights Policies in Central Europe: Explaining Policy Shifts in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. ? Jemie Special Focus, 2003, Issues 1, http://www.ecmi.de/jemie/special_1_2003.html
5.1 Mayall, David (2004). Gypsy Identities 1500-2000. From Egipcyans and Moon-men to the Ethnic Romany. London and New York: Routledge. Chapter 8: Constructing the ethnic Gypsy. Themes and Approaches.
5.2 Belton, Brian A. (2005). Questioning Gypsy Identity. Ethnic Narratives in Britain and America. AltaMira Press. pp. 13-18 and 93-110.
6.1 Okely, Judith (1997). Non-Territorial Culture as The Rationale for the Assimilation of Gypsy Children. Childhood 4,1. Pp 63-80.
6.2 ERRC (2004). Stigmata: Segregated Schooling of Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. A survey of patterns of segregated education of Roma in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Available at: http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=1892. pp. 9-13, 90-98.
6.3 Petrova, Dimitrina (2002). ?The Denial of Racism.? In Cahn, Claude (ed.) Roma Rights: Race, Justice and Strategies for Equality. Amsterdam- New York: IDEA. 208-224.
7.1 Matras, Yaron (2000). ?Romani migrations in the Post-Communist Era.? Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 13, no. 2, Spring-Summer 2000, pp. 32-50.
7.2 Willems, Wim ? Lucassen, Leo (2000). Gypsies in the diaspora? The pitfalls of a Biblical Concept. Histoire Sociale/Social History 33,66:251-269.
8.1 Templer, Bill (2006). Neoliberal Strategies to Defuse a Powder Keg in Europe: the "Decade of Roma Inclusion" and its Rationale. New Politics. 40, Vol X, No4, Winter 2006. Available at http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue40/Templer40.htm.
8.2 Nicolae, Valeriu (2005). The Decade of Roma Inclusion ? Between Hopes, Glitches and
Failures. In Overcoming Exclusion: The Roma Decade. EUMAP August 2005. pp. 1-5. Available at: www.eumap.org/journal/features/2005/romadec/nicolae.pdf
8.3 Consult www.romadecade.org
8.4 Decade Watch 2007. Decade Watch. Roma activists Assess the Progress of the Decade of Roma Inclusion. Available at http://demo.itent.hu/roma/portal/downloads/DecadeWatch/DecadeWatch%20-%20Complete%20(English;%20Final).pdf
9.1 Okely, Judith (1999). Writing Anthropology in Europe: an example from Gypsy research. In Folk 41, pp. 55-75.
Other required readings will be proposed by Kim Strozewski during the semester and put online
9.2 Margalit, Gilad (2000). The Uniqueness of the Nazi Persecution.of the Gypsies. Romani Studies 5 vol. 10/2 (2000), pp. 185-210.
9.3 James E. Young, 1993. The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. VII-XII, 1-15.
10.1 Guy, Will (2001). ?The Czech lands and Slovakia: another false down?? In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. 285-332.
10.2 Scheffel, David Z. (2005). Svinia in Black & White: Slovak Roma and their Neighbours. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press. Introduction, chapters 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4
11.1. Williams, Patrick (2003). Gypsy World : The Silence of the Living and the Voices of the Dead. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Chapter 2: 4-27.
11.2. Williams, Patrick (1982). The Invisibility of the Kalderash of Paris: Some aspects of the economic activity and settlement patterns of the Kalderash Rom of the Paris suburbs. Urban Anthropology, 11 no 3-4, pp 315-344.
12.1 Kenrick, Donald (2001). "Former Yugoslavia: A patchwork of destinies." In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 405-425.
12.2 Sigona, Nando (2003). How Can a ?Nomad? be a ?Refugee?? Kosovo Roma and Labelling Policy in Italy. Sociology , Volume 37(1): 69?79.
Poslední úprava: Mgr. Klára Synková (23.02.2010)
Department of Public and Social Policy, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University
The course was developed with support of the
Curriculum Development Competition, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary
and the Jean Monnet Programme
Lecturers: PhDr. Hana Synková & guest speakers
Place: Jinonice 2019
Time: Tuesady 14:00 - 15:20
Semester: Summer 2009/2010
ECTS Credits: 8
Besides providing the students with understanding of the above-identified phenomena and processes, the course also aims to further develop the students? generic skills that include:
? Comprehension skills: Understanding the key concepts and ideas important for the European policy and practice towards Roma.
? Critical thinking skills: The capacity for independent thought and judgment on the basis of the above presented theoretical concepts and work with literature.
? Communications skills: The ability to present sustained, cogent and persuasive arguments in both oral and written form and the ability to conduct research (including the usage of methods of field research).
? Team skills: The ability to work cooperatively with others through the presentation of ideas and negotiations of differing views and ability to evaluate work of others.
The course will be composed of 12 lectures interconnected with discussions-cum-seminars. The first part of the course provides general background to the study of European policy and practice towards the Roma. It explains the terminology used in relation to this topic and the controversies associated with it and gives an introduction to Romani communities and stereotypes that have been associated with this "category". The second part concentrates on policies towards the Roma, starting with an overview of European policy towards the Roma. It then deals more specifically with anti-discrimination, educational and migration policies. It also investigates the impact of European policies on Romani identity-building processes and the impact of international human rights norms on policy formation towards the Roma in the 1990s and vice versa. Finally, it provides a closer look at one of the most recent initiatives aimed at improving the socio-economic conditions of Romani communities in a number of European countries - the Decade of Romani Inclusion and NGO politics. The third part is dedicated to country studies, looking in more detail on the specific conditions of Romani communities and the policy and practice towards them in selected countries. The Czech/Slovak case study exemplifies the situation in Central Europe, the case study of the policies towards Travellers is selected as an example of a Western European situation and approach, and analysis of the situation in Italy and former Yugoslavia provides insight into Southern European practice. An important part of the course is the field visit the nature of which will be discussed and specified. Most probably we will visit a government agency or NGO.
Course Outline and Reading Guide
Required readings will be available on the Internet. Additional materials can be obtained from the lecturer.
1. General background
Topic 1 Introduction to the course and terminology
This introductory lecture provides a background framework for the course in terms of the key terminology that will be worked with in the course (social construction of reality, culture, social policy, etc.). The politically loaded discussion about "definition of Roma" will be presented and on its bases main groups of actors we will be dealing with throughout the course.
? 1.1 Brubaker, Rogers (2002). Ethnicity without Groups. Archives Européenes de Sociologie XLIII : 163-189.
Topic 2 Roma and stereotypes
This lecture tries to present an introduction to the multitude of distinct groups that have been called Roma. We will point out to the differences and similarities among such groups and subgroups and show the impossibility of defining all Roma through common "group attributes". The existence of Roma has always been influenced by the surrounding context. We will comment on the past and present position of the groups and point out to the main stereotyping connected to Roma (exoticization, nomadism, categorization from outside, etc.).
? 2.1 Ries, Johannes (2008). Writing (Different) Roma/Gypsies Romani/Gypsy Studies and the Scientific Construction of Roma/ Gypsies. In: Ries, J. - Jacobs, F. (eds.), Roma-/Zigeunerkulturen in neuen Perspektiven. Romani/Gypsy Cultures in New Perspectives. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag. Pp. 267-291.
? 2.2 Oprea, Alexandra (2005). The Arranged Marriage of Ana Maria Cioaba, Intra-Community Oppression and Romani Feminist Ideals: Transcending the ?Primitive Culture? Argument. European Journal of Women's Studies. 12(2):133-148. Sage Publication.
? 2.3 Marushiakova, Elena - Popov, Vesselin (2004). The Roma between the Skylla of Marginalization and the Charybdis of Exotization. In: Social and Cultural Diversity in Central and Eastern Europe: Old Factors and New, Seminar proceedings, Prague, October 2004. Multicultural centre Prague. Pp. 6-9.
? 2.4 Stewart, Michael (2001). Deprivation, the Roma and ?the underclass?. Appearing Chris Hann ed. Postsocialism: Ideas, Ideologies and Practices in Europe and Asia, Routledge, pp. 133-157.
? 2.5 Marushiakova, Elena - Popov, Vesselin (2001). Historical and ethnographic background: Gypsies, Roma and Sinti. In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. Pp. 33-53.
2. Policies towards the Roma
Topic 3 Overview of European policy on Roma
International and European human rights instruments have had an important impact on the formulation and implementation of policies towards the Roma. The other instruments, so far rather invisible, are systems of European grants that can influence the situation and discourses on national as well as local level. I will use an example of several European initiatives to show these influences. The lecture will bring up a theme of the role of Roma in changing policies.
? 3.1 Kovats, Martin (2001). The Emergence of European Roma Policy. In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 93-116.
? 3.2 Guglielmo, Rachel and Waters, Timothy William (2005). Migrating Towards Minority Status: Shifting European Policy towards Roma. In JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. Vol. 43. Issue 4. November 2005, pp. 763-86, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/jcms/43/4.
? 3.3 Simhandl, Katrin (2004). ?Western Gypsies and Travellers? - ?Eastern Roma?: The Creation of Political Objects by the Institutions of the European Union. Paper presented at the Fifth Pan-European Conference, The Hague, September 9-11, 2004 Section 21: Dialogue In/On International Relations.
? 3.4 Acton, Thomas, (2005). Has Rishi gone out of style? Academic and policy paradigms in Romani Studies. Roma, summer issue.
Topic 4 Changing discourses: cultural rights, international human rights norms and policy formation towards the Roma
Human rights discourse and politics have changed the way Roma have been treated by the state. The first attempts to use human rights discourse to achieve policy change date back to the 1970s, though the development towards human rights objective in policy making took on more significant pace only during the 1990s. This lecture devotes attention to the shift in the context of policy towards the Roma - from defining Romani policy in terms of solving the ?gypsy problem? to understanding that Romani policy is an issue of human rights or ?Roma Rights?. It will identify main actors and ask how are Roma presented in the human rights discourse. We will touch as well the question of "cultural rights" as a specific kind of collective rights.
? 4.1 Sobotka, Eva (2004). Human Rights and Policy Formation towards Roma in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. Tel Aviv: Stephen Roth Institute.
? 4.2 Nordberg, C. (2005) Integrating a Traditional Minority into a Nordic Society: Elite Discourse on the Finnish Roma. Social Work and Society, Vol 3, No 2, pp. 158-173.
? 4.3 Vermeersch, Peter (2003). EU Enlargement and Minority Rights Policies in Central Europe: Explaining Policy Shifts in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. " Jemie Special Focus, 2003, Issues 1, http://www.ecmi.de/jemie/special_1_2003.html
Topic 5 Discussion about Romani identities, ethnopolitics and activism
This week we will discuss the process of contemporary trans/formation of Romani identities within the framework of recent European policies concerning Roma. While the practical effect of various European policies on the material, legal and social-political conditions of Roma has already been widely studied, its impact on the Romani identity formation, which we understand as an interactive process, remains largely neglected. The principal question is whether the actual, non-romanticised Romani culture provides sufficient legitimization for the potentially self-proclaimed (trans)national political representation. To this end we will review possible sources of Romani identity to see which of them, apart of being intellectually constructed by both Romani and non-Romani intellectuals, may have now become ?politically (re)constructed? by Romani activists to serve as instruments of Romani politics.
? 5.1 Belton, Brian A. (2005). Questioning Gypsy Identity. Ethnic Narratives in Britain and America. AltaMira Press. pp. 13-18 and 93-110.
? 5.2 Vermeersch, Peter (2005). Marginality, advocacy, and the ambiguities of multiculturalism: Notes on Romani activism in central Europe. Identities. 12(4): 451-78.
? 5.3 Baar, Huub van der (2008) Scaling the Romani Grassroots: Europeanization and Transnational Networking?. In: Johannes Ries and Fabian Jacobs (Eds), Roma-/Zigeunerkulturen in neuen Perspektiven - Romani/Gypsy Cultures in New Perspectives. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitätsverlag, pages 217-241.
? 5.4 Nordberg, Camilla (2006). Claiming citizenship: Marginalised voices on identity and belonging. Citizenship Studies, 10(5), pp. 523-539.
? 5.5 Mayall, David (2004). Gypsy Identities 1500-2000. From Egipcyans and Moon-men to the Ethnic Romany. London and New York: Routledge. Chapter 8: Constructing the ethnic Gypsy. Themes and Approaches.
? 5.6. Sobotka, Eva (2001). The Limits of the State: Political Participation and Representation of Roma in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minorities in Europe. Special Focus 1/2001.
Topic 6 Educational policies and issues of exclusion
Education is an area that reflects well society?s attitudes and behaviour towards minority groups. Segregated schools, unbalanced curriculum content, biased teaching materials, teachers? expectations and attitudes, paternalistic policies and practice, together with public opinion towards minority schooling, all contribute to maintaining the marginalised status of the Roma. Roma themselves have biased attitudes towards majority schooling and their social practices and values influence the school success of children as well as a discrimination from majority. In this lecture, we will explore the management of change from exclusion and assimilation to the concepts of multiculturalism and inclusion in educational practice. We will address the issue of racism (its forms, causes, denial and reactions to it) and definitions of direct and indirect discrimination and victimisation.
? 6.1 Liégeois, Jean-Pierre 1998. Pedagogy. Alien institution. In: School Provision for Ethnic Minorities; the Gypsy Paradigm. Pp. 175-191.
? 6.2 Okely, Judith (1997). Non-Territorial Culture as The Rationale for the Assimilation of Gypsy Children. Childhood 4,1. Pp 63-80.
? 6.3 Cahn, Claude, Chirico, David, et al. (2002). "Roma in the educational systems of Central and Eastern Europe". In Cahn, Claude (ed.) Roma Rights: Race, Justice and Strategies for Equality. Amsterdam- New York: IDEA. Pp. 71-85.
? 6.4 ERRC (2004). Stigmata: Segregated Schooling of Roma in Central and Eastern Europe. A survey of patterns of segregated education of Roma in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia. Available at: http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=1892. pp. 9-13, 90-98.
? 6.5 Petrova, Dimitrina (2002). "The Denial of Racism." In Cahn, Claude (ed.) Roma Rights: Race, Justice and Strategies for Equality. Amsterdam- New York: IDEA. 208-224.
Topic 7 Romani "diasporas", migrations and their impact on policy-making
After the fall of an Iron Curtain, people from Eastern Europe have gained a theoretical possibility to go abroad. The cost of migration has fallen with the development of better travel connection and information services. However, the "rise in mobility" has not been equally distributed among the population and people from the lower income classes, majority of Roma included, could not travel as freely. Despite this there has been a migration of Roma from which the majority has been settled for some centuries. Migration of Roma from Central European countries can be viewed as a result of Roma exclusion from society after 1989, a change that forced the Roma to the bottom of the social structure. The lecture offers an overview of the causes and motivations for Romani emigration. We will touch as well the "diaspora" concept and its use in politics.
? 7.1 Matras, Yaron (2000). "Romani migrations in the Post-Communist Era." Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 13, no. 2, Spring-Summer 2000, pp. 32-50.
? 7.2 Kovats, András, ed. (2002). Roma Migration. Budapest: Hungarian Academy of sciences, Institute of Minority Research. - Introduction from Stewart and 1st chapter from Kovats. Pp. 4-33.
? 7.3 Gay y Blasco, Paloma (2002). Gypsy/Roma diasporas. A comparative perspective. Social Anthropology, 10 , pp 173-188.
? 7.4 Willems, Wim - Lucassen, Leo (2000). Gypsies in the diaspora? The pitfalls of a Biblical Concept. Histoire Sociale/Social History 33,66:251-269.
Topic 8 Excursion, policy case study - Government or NGO policies. The Decade of Romani Inclusion
The Decade of Romani Inclusion, 2005-2015, is an initiative adopted by eight countries in Central and Southeast Europe, and supported by the international community. An action framework for governments, the Decade will monitor progress in accelerating social inclusion and improving the economic and social status of Roma across the region. Since participation of Romani representatives and civil society organizations is a core value of the Decade, this "lecture" will be given in the form of discussion with one of the representatives of the Czech Romani civil society who has been involved in the process. We will discuss the project and its negotiation and on international and national levels. We will discuss as well the situation in Czech NGO sand governmental sector and the chances of "bringing the change".
? 8.1 Pinnock, Katherine (2002). The Impact of the NGO Sector and Roma/Gypsy Organisations in Bulgaian Policy-Making 1989-1997, in: Journal of Social Policy, v.31, part 2, pp 229-250.
? 8.2 Nicolae, Valeriu (2005). The Decade of Roma Inclusion - Between Hopes, Glitches and
Failures. In Overcoming Exclusion: The Roma Decade. EUMAP August 2005. pp. 1-5. Available at: www.eumap.org/journal/features/2005/romadec/nicolae.pdf
? 8.3 Templer, Bill (2006). Neoliberal Strategies to Defuse a Powder Keg in Europe: the "Decade of Roma Inclusion" and its Rationale. New Politics. 40, Vol X, No4, Winter 2006. Available at http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue40/Templer40.htm.
? 8.4 Consult www.romadecade.org
? 8.5 Decade Watch 2007. Decade Watch. Roma activists Assess the Progress of the Decade of Roma Inclusion. Available at http://demo.itent.hu/roma/portal/downloads/DecadeWatch/DecadeWatch%20-%20Complete%20(English;%20Final).pdf
Topic 9 Roma in researches, questions of history
This lesson will bring an overview of the researches that were done on the topic of Roma. We will look on their history, when they often served to legitimate state policies. Then present research trends willl be explored and a question of power imbalance between an observer and observed discussed. We will also discuss the historiographical place of Roma in Holocaust research and speak about efforts of Romani organizations and international organizations to memorialize and include the experience of the Roma into the Holocaust narrative. We will also discuss "meanings" behind the creation of memorials.
? 9.1 Okely, Judith (1999). Writing Anthropology in Europe: an example from Gypsy research. In Folk 41, pp. 55-75.
? 9.2 Stewart, Michael 2004. Remembering Without Commemoration: the mnemonics and politics of Holocaust memories among European Roma. Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute. 10. pp. 561-582.
? 9.3 Margalit, Gilad (2000). The Uniqueness of the Nazi Persecution.of the Gypsies. Romani Studies 5 vol. 10/2 (2000), pp. 185-210.
? 9.4 James E. Young, 1993. The Texture of Memory: Holocaust Memorials and Meaning. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. VII-XII, 1-15.
3. Country studies
Topic 10 Central Europe -- case study from Czech and Slovak Republic (Background, Policy and Practice)
During his time in office, Václav Havel, the former President of the Czech Republic, stated that ?the treatment of Roma is a litmus test of democracy.? While under the communism regime the Roma were subject to assimilation, 1989 brought some hopes for their integration. However, these hopes were quickly dispersed as the Roma were the first to suffer from the negative effects of a nascent market economy (unemployment, exclusion, racism as an expression of freedom of speech, etc). Only after the emigration of Roma to Canada in 1997 and international reaction in the form of visas and criticism of CR, the Czech government started to acknowledge there is a need of co-ordinated action. This lecture explores in detail the role of different actors, including NGOs, in the process of policy formation and implementation in the Czech Republic. Case study from Czech Republic will describe a controversial expulsion of Roma from the town of Vsetin and case study from Slovakia will present one concrete development project in Svinia, East Slovakia, question its failures and contexts.
? 10.1 Guy, Will (2001). "The Czech lands and Slovakia: another false down?" In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. 285-332.
? 10.2 Scheffel, David Z. (2005). Svinia in Black & White: Slovak Roma and their Neighbours. Peterborough, Ontario: Broadview Press. Introduction, chapters 1.1, 1.2 and 1.4
Topic 11 Western Europe -- case study Gitanos/Gypsies/Travellers (Background, Policy and Practice)
The situation of Roma in "Western" countries is rather different from the one in post-socialist Europe. Labelling processes function differently and although many people have settled or have been forced to settle, some are still travelling, or more and more often staying permanently in the municipality designated parking areas for trailers. The presentation will describe such (non-)places, mechanisms of exclusion that are present and the attempts to "control" people through the insertion of meagre social services.
? 11.1.Okely, Judith (1983). The Traveller-Gypsies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Part of the chapter Symbolic boundaries. Pp. 77-89.
? 11.2 Cowan, Dave - Lomax, Delia (2003). Policing Unauthorized Camping. Journal of Law and Society, Vol. 30, pp. 283-308, June 2003.
? 11.3 Gay y Blasco, Paloma (2003). ?This Is Not a Place for Civilised People?: Isolation, Enforced Education and Resistance Among Spanish Gypsies. In A. Bashford and C. Strange (eds.), Isolation: Practices and Places of Exclusion. New York. Routledge.
? 11.4 Williams, Patrick (1982). The Invisibility of the Kalderash of Paris: Some aspects of the economic activity and settlement patterns of the Kalderash Rom of the Paris suburbs. Urban Anthropology, 11 no 3-4, pp. 315-344.
Topic 12 Southern Europe - Italy, Greece, former Yugoslavia (Background,
Policy and Practice)
Last months, Italy has been frequently The whole region of ex-Yugoslavia underwent enormous changes at the end of the last century. The effects of these changes on different social and economic levels were numerous and affected various ethnic groups differently. This lecture focuses on the Romani ethnic minority in the region. It starts with a brief account of its situation in the united multiethnic state during socialism and goes on to explain how it was affected by the recent wars following the break-up of the multiethnic state, finishing with an overview of the current situation in individual countries.
? 12.1 Sigona, Nando (2005). Locating ?The Gypsy Problem?: The Roma in Italy: Stereotyping, Labelling and ?Nomad Camps?. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 31:4, July 2005, pp.741-756.
? 12.2 Marantzidis, Nikos - Mavrommatis, George (1999). Political clientelism and social exclusion: the case of the Gypsies in the Greek town of Sofades. International Sociology, 1999, 14(4): 443-456.
? 12.3 Kenrick, Donald (2001). "Former Yugoslavia: A patchwork of destinies." In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 405-425.
Our course uses the following grading scale:
Work of exceptional quality showing evidence of independent judgement and the ability to think critically about the issues under discussion. Work in this category will be based on wide reading, and will present a critical evaluation of the sources used. It will contain a clear and penetrating analysis and interpretation of the concepts and arguments found in the literature including a reasoned rejection of some of these arguments. Work in this category will be well structured and well written. It will display a decree of flair and originality.
A, A- 80-89%
Work of excellent quality showing the ability to engage with the key concepts and arguments in the relevant literature. It will demonstrate evidence of wide reading, and a clear grasp of the subject matter and main issues under discussion. The arguments will be clearly developed and evidence will be shown of a reasoned rejection of some of the arguments in the literature. The work will be suitably referenced. The work will be well written with limited grammatical errors.
Work of good quality showing evidence of a reasonable grasp of the key issues and concepts. The analysis will raise the main points but the argument is likely to lack a tight framework. The work will show awareness of disagreement among various sources. Most often work in this category will be more descriptive than analytical. There is likely to be some errors in grammar and spelling and in the use of sources.
Work of satisfactory quality showing an attempt to engage with the main issues but often lacking in breadth and depth. Work in this category will display a limited understanding of the key debates and will most often simply reproduce the arguments from a limited range of sources. The reference technique is likely to be poor with a failure to substantiate key points. The writing will be marked by poor grammar, spelling and syntax.
FAIL <60% Work which shows a failure to understand the main issues. This will be work which has limited relevance to the topic under discussion, and contains many errors of fact and interpretation. Often work of this quality will also fail to meet the word norm. It will also be characterised by poor grammar syntax and spelling.
Student assessment in this course comprises of four components:
Attendance, participation in discussions 30%
One AQCI (due 1.4.) and one Presentation and evaluating 1-2 AQCI of colleagues
Or two AQCI (due 1.4. and 29.4.) and evaluating 1-2 AQCI of colleagues 40%
Research essay (up to 3,000 words, due 14 May 2010) 30%
Students who fail to complete one or more of these four components will be required to take a written test during the regular examination period. The test will cover all compulsory readings and all lecture topics.
AQCI: Argument, Question, Connections, and Implications
All students will be required to pick one article from reading list. Although only one AQCI per person will be marked, students may wish to prepare more of them in order to structure their thinking about the topic. Due
The structure of a written AQCI should be as follows (i.e. you should keep the numbered paragraph structure):
1.CENTRAL QUOTATION. Quote a sentence (or excerpts from linked sentences) from the text that you think is central to the author's (or authors') implicit or explicit argument(s). Always cite the page.
2. ARGUMENT. In a few sentences, state the author's explicit or implicit argument. Be sure to include both: what the author is arguing for, and what s/he is arguing against (if applicable).
3. QUESTION. Raise a question which you think is not fully, or satisfactorily, answered by the text. The question should be a question of interpretation or of inquiry, not simply a question of fact.
4. EXPERIENTIAL CONNECTION. Say, in a few lines only, how the argument confirms or contradicts your own experience or common sense.
5. TEXTUAL CONNECTION. Connect the argument of this text to an argument or point you find in another reading assignment covered in this course or one you have picked up from earlier study at the university or elsewhere. Present a quote from the other text (citing it properly), and explain how the present text's argument contrasts with, contradicts, confirms, clarifies, or elaborates the other text's argument or point.
6. IMPLICATIONS. Lay out what this argument (#2 above) implies for understanding society, relations between individuals, or groups or any facet of social or cultural reality (a few sentences only).
AQCIs should not exceed one typed page. They should be typed or word-processed, proofread and printed with the same degree of care as essays.
Mutual evaluation: AQCI discussion forum serves to mutual evaluation of your AQCIs using the same evaluation form as a teacher. You should evaluate one AQCI of your colleague. After that the AQCI could be submitted in a final version.
Each student will be required to make a presentation about one article from the required readings. This article will be different than the article for an AQCI. The presentation will be submitted in the form of PPT presentation. It should follow the structure of an AQCI and should not exceed 5 minutes. Please, prepare the questions you would like to discuss and be prepared to lead the discussion.
Students are required to prepare a research essay of up to 3,000 words on a topic of their choice relevant to the issues covered in this course. Your topic should be approved by Hana beforehand. Approval should be sought by E-mailing Hana the suggested title and bibliography of at least three items (e.g. books, articles, webpages) well in advance of the deadline. Essays should posted on moodle by 14 of May 2010.
One of the aims of our course is to help students develop critical thinking skills. Thus in order to receive high grades, you will need to follow these guidelines for essay preparation:
? An essay should be an argument: it should present a case. Ask yourself what are the important questions in any particular issue. In other words, you should discuss a problem and not simply narrate events or the stages of an argument. It may be necessary to devote space to narrative or description, but the major task always consists in weighing and assessing evidence and arguing from that evidence to a resolution of your question. Description should be aimed at illustrating your line of argument rather than merely detailing facts.
? Have a clear idea in your own mind about what the problem/issue is and what is involved in examining it. Remember that there will rarely be a single clear-cut answer. Be careful in your judgments to weigh them against opposing views. Avoid sweeping or unsupported generalisations.
Structure and organisation
? "Every essay should have a beginning, a middle, and an end" or "Say what you are going to say, say it and then say what you have said" area all sound pieces of advice. The introduction to an essay is crucial, and should set the scene for the argument to follow. The overall structure of the essay will vary according to the topic you choose, and how you decide to tackle it. You will certainly need to develop a clear line of argument. The conclusions should draw out the results of your analysis.
? As a preliminary exercise you should identify the different (and competing) viewpoints that exist on the particular topic. Then ask: "Do I know any writers whose arguments cover any of the parts of this?" If this is not immediately clear, then try asking first: What are the key debates here? Who has written on this topic?"
? When you are clear which arguments need discussion, try asking: "What would be a logical order in which to set all this out so that it forms a continuous argument?" At this point you should also decide what point of view you want to take. An essay is not merely a summary of what others have said. You need to show the reader that you have understood the arguments and formulated your own position.
? Then summarise all this in an introduction - normally a first or second paragraph saying: (a) why the question/issue/problem arises, (b) how you will answer it, (c) what the argument will be.
Sources and referencing
? Sources vary greatly in quality and not all are equally relevant to your purpose. Wherever practicable, work out your own interpretation from the literature. The authority for your work comprises primary texts, that is, documents contemporary with the time of which you write, or reports of people with first-hand experience of events you are discussing. Secondary sources can help you to clarify some point, but they should not be relied on instead of primary texts. Do not accept without question the views expressed or the interpretations given in secondary works. One part of your task is to show an awareness of conflicting arguments by critically evaluating them.
? Remember that you must note your reference to your source not only for any direct quotation but also for any statement that is not common knowledge and for any opinion that you may have drawn from others. Footnotes can be used not only to note your sources, but to explain how you came to an idea. So for example, you could explain in a footnote that you got the original idea from reading source A, but that you went on to modify its insights in the light of reading source B or of talking to your lecturer or a friend.
? The purpose of acknowledging sources is to conform to standards of intellectual honesty and to facilitate a reader?s evaluation of your use of sources. It also gives readers a sense of the progress of intellectual discovery, and instructs others in the process of inquiry. Because sources are acknowledged partly to facilitate the scrutiny of your use of sources, do not cite, for example, a whole chapter as your source because the information cited is somewhere in it. You should always include page numbers in your citations.
? Keep accurate records of your own research so that you can refer to material exactly when writing your essay. In order to minimise the time spent on preparing bibliographies and footnotes, you should make sure that during your preparatory reading, you include in your notes the page of your reference and the title, edition, publisher, date, and place of publication of each book that you read. This will eliminate the need to refer to the work a second time in order to check your source for footnotes and bibliographies.
? Do not copy phrases or sentences verbatim from your source or paraphrase its sentences closely. If you borrow directly from a source, acknowledge the source in a footnote. Borrow and paraphrase cautiously, since the author of secondary material is seldom attempting to address the same problem as that which you are tackling.
? When making a direct quotation, quote accurately. Quotations should always be material to your argument, that is, you may quote directly from a primary source as a means of supplying evidence for a point that you wish to make. Do not quote from authorities merely to sum up an argument. Summing up should always be done in your own words, not in the words of another writer. Quotations from books are quite permissible if your purpose is to discuss the words used or the style of argument of the author as illustrated in the passage quoted.
? Rearrangements of passages cannot be cited as direct quotations. Certain limited deletions and additions are permitted in quotations in the interest of brevity and grammar; however, words omitted should be indicated by a series of three spaced dots (ellipses), and words inserted or altered in form should be marked by placing them in square brackets. Insertions and alterations should however be kept to a minimum.
? The integrity of learning and scholarship depends on a code of conduct governing good practise and acceptable academic behaviour. One of the most important elements of good practise involves acknowledging carefully the people whose ideas we have used, borrowed, or developed. Therefore, there is nothing wrong in using the work of others as a basis for your own work, nor is it evidence of your inadequacy, provided you do not attempt to pass off someone else's work as your own.
? You will be guilty of plagiarism if you do any of the following in the research essay, without clearly acknowledging your source(s) for each quotation or piece of borrowed material: a) copy out part(s) of any document or audio-visual material, including computer-based material; b) use or extract someone else's concepts or conclusions, even if you put them in your words; c) copy out or take ideas from the work of another student, even if you put the borrowed material in your own words; d) submit substantially the same final version of any material as a fellow student.
? Plagiarism will be penalised.
? Style is to some extent a personal matter, but a direct simple style free from mannerisms is best at conveying what you want to say to others. Above all, aim at clarity. Complex and convoluted sentences will obscure your meaning. Try not to use unnecessary jargon and bear in mind that few readers will be greatly impressed if you use a four-syllable word where a much simpler word would do. Use the active rather than the passive voice or else your opinions will seem hesitant and your arguments weak. For example, it is preferable to say "In this essay, I have argued that...", rather than "It has been argued in this essay that...".
? Unless you are a member of the royal family, avoid using "we" or "one" (or worse, "this writer"), when you mean "I".
? Although it is not always easy to reconcile non-sexist language with good grammar, the use of plural or impersonal nouns will get you out of most problems. As an example, use "Students should hand in their work on time", rather than "A student should hand in his work on time" (sexist language), or "A student should hand in their work on time" (bad grammar), or "A student should hand in his/her work on time" (awkward). It is intellectually inappropriate as well as discourteous to your audience to use masculine terms when women as well as men are being talked about or addressed.
? Be careful, however, to note that when writers use "man", they may mean precisely that. Do not assume that writers mean "men and women" when they use "man". In other words, be alive to the gendered construction of problems in writers you consider in this subject. It is often a good idea to note in a footnote that you are aware of this concern when you quote from a writer who uses masculine nouns and pronouns.
? Your first draft should never be the last. Also note that spelling mistakes and sloppy grammar may obscure your meaning. They will probably create the impression of careless writing and, if they are numerous, indicate that the essay was not proof-read after it was written. Avoidable errors are likely to result in marks being deducted.
ESSAY CHECK LIST
As well as re-reading these guidelines, you should ask yourself these questions before submitting written work:
1. Do all parts of the essay contribute to a resolution of the question asked of you?
2. Does the essay take the form of an argument or is it a mere narrative devoid of explanation?
3. Is the structure clear? Is it ordered in a logical fashion so that readers are left in no doubt as to the nature of the argument being developed?
4. Are you sure that you have understood the issue? What subsidiary questions are implicit in the broad problem? Have you satisfactorily defined important terms and concepts?
5. Have you included an alphabetical bibliography of all sources consulted (listing author(s), title of article or book, where relevant name(s) of author(s) of book, title of book or name of journal, publisher and place and date of publication)?
6. Does the essay contain footnotes/endnotes and do they adequately show the sources on which you have drawn? (footnotes/endnotes should be given for evidence used to support your argument; statistics; direct (preferably primary) quotations; facts that are not common knowledge; and ideas, theories, conclusions and explanations that are not your own; use either the Harvard (author-date) or Chicago style for citing sources in the text. For referencing using these two styles see e.g. the following websites, respectively:
Late submission: Extensions are granted only in cases of certified medical need or other dire circumstances and should be sought from Hana Synkova during her office hours or, if impossible, via E-mail hana.synkova AT gmail.com. Those late essays for which extension was not granted are penalized 1% for each workday late (i.e. if you are 10 days late, you will loose an entire grade, thus you get a B for an essay which would deserve A if it was on time, etc.)
Standardized marking procedure
All written work will be graded using standard marking sheets to ensure consistency and fairness. The sample sheets can be found on the course website (see below) under the heading "Essays".
Rewrites policy: As a part of our aim to help students develop critical thinking and written communication skills, students will have the opportunity to rewrite their AQCIs and essays if they are not happy with their grade but only if they submit them at the latest one week in advance of the official deadline.
Attendance and seminar participation
All students are expected to be fully familiar with every week?s required readings and bring to class their own considered questions and reactions to the material. The seminar discussion is intended to enable you to develop your understanding of the readings and to exchange ideas with others and your attendance and participation in the seminar will be reflected in your grade.
All relevant course materials, including this syllabus, can be found on the course website: http://dl.cuni.cz. (old 2006 course http://roma.fsv.cuni.cz). Majority of lectures will be delivered in the form of Power Point slide presentations which will also be placed on the website for your convenience.
Poslední úprava: Mgr. Klára Synková (05.03.2009)