|PA_1vs_17_18.pdf||Přednášky 2017/18||MUDr. Vlastimil Kulda, Ph.D.|
|SA_1vs_17_18.pdf||Praktika 2017/18||MUDr. Vlastimil Kulda, Ph.D.|
Poslední úprava: MUDr. Vlastimil Kulda, Ph.D. (16.11.2017)
Poslední úprava: MUDr. Vlastimil Kulda, Ph.D. (16.11.2017)
Cerný R.: General and Inorganic Chemistry for Medical Students, Univerzita Karlova, Lékarská fakulta v Plzni, Plzen, 1993.
Kotyza J.: Basic Organic Chemistry for Medical Students, Univerzita Karlova, Lékarská fakulta v Plzni, Plzen, 1993.
Cerný R., Kotyza J., Cerná E.: Medical Chemistry - Laboratory Manual, Univerzita Karlova, Lékarská fakulta Plzen, Plzen, 1995
Brown T.E. et al: Chemistry: The Central Science.
Timberlake K.C. et al: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry.
Poslední úprava: Vendulka Votípková (25.05.2018)
Semester Credit Requirements:
Poslední úprava: MUDr. Vlastimil Kulda, Ph.D. (19.06.2014)
Laboratory sessions and seminars:
Inorganic chemical nomenclature, molecular and structural formulas, qualitative analysis of anions and cations, concentration of solutions, principles of volumetric analysis, alkalimetric titration, chelatometric titration, acid-base theory, pH, buffers, fundamentals of quantitative analysis in organic chemistry.
1. Structure of the atom: nucleus, protones, neutrones, electron orbitals. A periodical table.
2. Chemical composition of the Earth crust and the human body. Principal biogenic elements and their properties. Covalent, ionic, hydrogen bonds.
3. Sulphur, SH-groups, GSH.
4. Phosphorus, phosphates, high energy phosphates.
5. Water as a medium, the body content of, extracellular and intracellular water, mineral solutes.
6. Biological transport, Na/K, Ca, H/K pumps. Ouabain inhibition. Passive transport and cotransport. Na channel, tetrodotoxin inhibition.
7. Ionic composition of the blood plasma (values!).
8. Mineral constituents of the bone and the tooth, apatite.
10. Chemical properties and dissociation of water, pH. Hydrophily and hydrophobicity. The see, rain, surface, ground, spring water, natural contamination, industrial pollution. Softening of the hard water.
11. Biological wastes, bacterial decomposition, biological oxygen demand. Eutrofication. Water borne illnesses. Water treatment. Nitrogeneous contaminants and their toxicity.NH3, NO2 -, NO3 -. Phosphates, Fe and Mn compounds. Phenoles, detergents, fluoride, humic acids, ligninsulphates, chlorination of water.
12. Water metabolism, resorption, secretion, renal excretion.
13. Composition of the atmosphere (values!). Respiration, oxygen transport, CO2 content.
14. Ozone and oxygen radicals, their detoxification. Superoxide dismutase, GSH peroxidase, catalase.Tocopherol as a scavenger, regeneration. Genetic defects and hemolytic anemia. Food antioxidants. Retardation of fat spoilage. The air pollution, the London smog, photochemical smog, PAN. Particulate matter, SO2, nitrogen oxides (safe limits!). CO and CO2, hydrocarbon pollution.
15. Pb and toxic metals. Indoor pollution, radon and formaldehyde. Chlorofluorocarbon pollution.
16. Hydrogen ion and pH. Na and K in the cell, transport, valinomycin and gramicidin. Li, its use in manic-depressive psychosis.
17. Cu, Cu-containing proteins. Wilson’s disease.
18. Au and Ag in medicine. Alloys of Au. Mg as an enzyme cofactor. Duodenal reflex. Mg mineral waters.
19. The biological role of Ca. The bone minerals and ossification. PTH, CT, calcitriol in Ca metabolism. The role of Ca in muscle contraction. Calsequestrin and calmodulin. Ca and glycogen breakdown. Ca in smooth muscle, nifedipine effect. Ca in photoreception. Ca and blood clotting. Plaster of Paris. Lime and slaked lime as a corrosive poison.
20. Zn as an enzyme cofactor. Cd intoxication. Sr in the human body.
21. Boric acid, medical use and toxicity. Si, quartz, silicosis and asbestosis.
22. Nitrogen biological cycle. N2O in medicine. Nitric oxide. Biological formation of NO. Nitroglycerine and amylnitrite.
23. Phosphates in the human body. ATP and high energy compounds. Toxic organophosphates, the interference with acetylcholine metabolism.
24. Sulphur compounds of biological importance. Cysteine, GSH. Selenium as a trace element. Cr as a glucose tolerance factor. Mo as a trace element.
25. Chlorine, chlorination of water, HCl formation in the stomach, chlorides in the plasma. CHCl3, CCl4,fosgene. Fluorine as a trace element.
26. Iodine as a trace mineral, biosynthesis of thyroxine. Iodine tincture, Lugol’s solution. Mn as a trace element. Metabolism of iron. Heme iron proteins and non heme iron proteins. Ferritin, transferrin, hemosiderin.
27. Co and the vitamin B12.
28. Toxicology. Poisons, LD50. The metabolism of poisons.
29. Corrosive poisons. Asphyxia agents - CO, HCN, NO2-. The toxic heavy metals. Arsenic intoxication. Marsh’s test. Organic derivatives of As. Salvarsan therapy.
30. Hg intoxication. HgCl2 in acute oral intoxication. Toxicity of organic Hg derivatives, Minamata disease. Hg fungicides.
31. Pb intoxication, anemias and neurotoxicity. Lead acetate. Tetraethyllead and its toxicity.
32. Toxicity of Cd. Acute Ba intoxication, BaSO4 in medical use. Thallium rodenticides.
33. Police gas agents. Tear gas, cough gas. Chemical war agents. Suffocation gasses. Chlorine, phosgene.
34. Nerve agents, the interference with acetylcholine nerve transmission. Organophosphates in agriculture, parathion and its biotransformation.
35. Structure of organic compounds. Nomenclature of aliphatic, alicyclic and aromatic compounds. Radicals, functional groups.
36. Biotransformation of polycyclic carcinogens.
37. Hydrophobicity, hydrophily. Alkyl halides. Types and properties of general anesthetics (N2O, ether, chloroform, cyclopropane, halothane, methoxyflurane).
38. Classification and properties of aliphatic and aromatic alcohols (phenols). Toxicity of methanol, ethanol, ethylenglycol. Biological oxidation of ethanol. Calculation of blood alcohol, catabolic rate.
39. Thiols, dimercaptopropanol, cysteine, glutathion, lipoic acid.
40. Tyrosine, thyronine, thyroxine. DOPA, catecholamines.
41. Coenzyme Q, mandelic acid. Vitamin K, its role in prothrombin activation, action of dicoumarol.
42. Nomenclature and reactions of aldehydes and ketones. Classification and reactions of carboxylic acids. Biologically important carboxylic acids.
43. Ketone bodies.
44. Benzoic acid and its detoxication. PABA. Salicylates, aspirin, PAS. EDTA.
45. Chemistry and antimicrobial effect of sulfonamides.
46. Amines and their reactions (salts, amides, nitrosamines), choline, acetylcholine and its physiological role.
47. Dopamine, serotonin, histamine, phenylethylamine and other sympatomimetic amines (adrenalin, noradrenalin).
48. Amides, urea, thiourea, biuret, its complexes. Guanidine, creatin, creatinine, barbituric acid and barbiturates.
49. Basic classification and characteristics of heterocyclic compounds. Pyrrol and its derivatives.
50. Porfin, heme. Bilirubin and its glucuronide, urobilinogen.
51. Indole, tryptophan, serotonine, indoleacetic acid.
52. Pyrazole and antiinflammatory drugs, imidazole derivatives.
53. Histidine, histamine, thiophene, thiazole, thiamin, biotin. Penicillin, bacterial resistance.
54. Pyridine, nicotinamide (ox-red forms), NAD, pyridoxal coenzymes, vit B6.
55. Biologically important pyrimidines, tautomerism.
56. Common purines (alpha, beta), oxidation products, forms of uric acid, cAMP, ATP.
57. Pteridine and its derivatives (biopterin, folic acid), biomedical importance.
58. Isoalloxazine, riboflavin, FAD.
59. Phenothiazine, azepine, diazepine, tricyclic antidepressants. Benzopyrans, vit. E.
60. Alkaloids, general characteristics, structural features, examples, biological effects of the main classes, medical use and abuse: active amines, purine&pyrimidine alkaloids, phenanthrene opiates (morphin and heroin), psychedelic drugs, cannabinoids.
61. Tropane alkaloids, cocaine derivatives, local anesthetics.
62. Sedatives and hypnotics: barbiturates and tranquilizers.
63. Saccharides,classification, cyclic forms, anomers, reducing properties, aldonic and uronic acids.
64. Biological aspects and strutures of monosaccharides (ribose, deoxyribose, glucose, galactose, fructose), ascorbic acid.
65. Disaccharides (maltose, sucrose, cellobiose, lactose). Reducing sugars.
66. Starch, dextran, glycogen, inulin.
67. Glycosaminoglycans (hyaluronic a., chondroitin-sulphate, heparin). The structure and biol. role of proteoglycans.
68. Properties and structures of lipids. Saponification. Soaps, detergents. Chemistry of their constituents.
69. Eicosanoids (generation, involvement, inhibitory drugs).
70. Fats. Phosphatidic acid, phospholipids (eg. lecithin, cardiolipin, phosphatidylinositol).
71. Sphingosine, ceramides (sphingomyelin, cerebrosides, sulphatides, gangliosides).
72. Isoprene derivatives - terpenes (menthol, camphor, phytol, squalene).
73. Vitamin A and its biological functions. Composition of "visual purple", biochemical basis of vision. Carotene.
74. Chemistry of steroids, classification. Cholesterol and its esters.
75. Vitamin D, calcitriol, physiological function. Structure and role of cholic acid and its conjugates.
79. Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.
80. Amino acids, L-isomers. Amphionic properties. Decarboxylation, deamination, ninhydrin reaction. Peptide bond, peptides. Digestion of proteins.
81. Essential amino acids. Structures and properties of 20 common AA, their abbreviations ( three-letter codes).
82. Drawing oligopeptide structures acc. to a given sequence (eg. Ala.Phe.Ile).
83. Hydroxyproline, hydroxylysine, methylhistidine, beta-alanine, gamma-carboxylglutamic acid, ornithine, citrulline.
84. Primary structure of proteins, peptide hormones (oxytocin, vasopressin, insulin). Homologies and disorders, hemoglobin and its pathological variants.
85. Secondary structures (alpha-helix, beta-pleated sheet, triple helix).
86. Tertiary and quarternary structure, stabilizing bonds.
87. Biological functions of proteins, denaturation of proteins.
88. Nucleic acids and their constituents: structures of all nitrogeneous bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, deoxyderivatives, polarity of polynucleotides (5’-end, 3’-end), complementarity rules.
89. Active drawing of an oligonucleotide structure acc. to given sequence (eg. pAGU-OH).
90. Replication, transcription, translation.
91. Structure of DNA double helix, Z-form.
92. Structure and function of RNA species (rRNA, tRNA, mRNA).
93. Translation of mRNA, proteosynthesis on ribosomes.