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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Pharmacology I - GAF339
Title: Pharmacology I
Guaranteed by: Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology (16-16170)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2021
Semester: winter
Points: 0
E-Credits: 5
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:56/42, C [HS]
Capacity: unlimited / unlimited (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Note: deregister from the credit exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
Guarantor: prof. PharmDr. František Štaud, Ph.D.
Comes under: 3.ročník 2023/24 AJ
Co-requisite : GAF341
Pre-requisite : GAF137, GAF232, GAF370
Interchangeability : GAF155, GAF309, GF339
Is co-requisite for: GAF189, GAF340, GAF305, GAF358, GAF344, GAF341
Is pre-requisite for: GAF372
Is interchangeable with: GAF155
Annotation -
Last update: prof. PharmDr. František Štaud, Ph.D. (07.01.2018)
Pharmacology is a scientific discipline studying the interactions of drugs with the organism both in the sense of pharmacokinetics (the fate of the drug in the organism) and pharmacodynamics (effect of drugs on the organism). These interactions are studied at all levels (molecular, cellular, organ, whole organisms). Pharmacology teaching in the “Pharmacy study program” is divided into two immediately adjacent parts: Pharmacology I (taught in winter semester of the 3rd year) and Pharmacology II (taught in summer semester of the 3rd year). Students will first learn about the general rules of pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and pharmacodynamics (mechanisms of drug effects, adverse reactions, principles of drug-drug interactions). Subsequently, topics of special pharmacology are discussed according to individual organ systems (e.g. cardiovascular, CNS, endocrine...). In the course of pharmacology, emphasis is also placed on the clinical aspects of drug effects in humans. The knowledge gained subsequently enables the pharmacist, in collaboration with a physician, to contribute to rational, safe and effective pharmacotherapy. <br>The subject of Pharmacology I focuses specifically on the following thematic areas: General pharmacology Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Special Pharmacology Pharmacology of the peripheral nervous system Pharmacology of the kidneys Pharmacology of the cardiovascular system (and risk factors) Pharmacology of the CNS (part I)
Course completion requirements -
Last update: prof. PharmDr. František Štaud, Ph.D. (08.01.2018)

Principal rule enabling students sit for the credit test of the winter term from Pharmacology

  • Attendance of the seminars from Pharmacology I. Maximum one justified absence of total 14 seminars is tolerated. Any additional absences will be solved individually by the teachers.


  • written test, 8 questions
  • 4 questions from special pharmacology (drugs acting on adrenergic or cholinergic receptors incl. cholinomimetics in the therapy of Alzheimer disease; pharmacotherapy of hypertension, dysrhythmias, coronary heart disease and heart failure)
  • one question on categorization of a drug according to the list of pharmacodynamic groups
  • one question on the pharmacological (clinical) use of a drug
  • two questions on mechanism of action of a drug
  • 4 questions from general pharmacology (both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics including one pharmacokinetic calculation)
  • maximal duration of the credit test is 20 minutes

Dates of the test:

  • Each student has maximum three possibilities for the credit test

Score and credit requirements:

  • test is multiple-choice (from 0 up to all correct answers) with exception of the first question (drug categorization)
  • all answers count (incl. unmarked)
  • correct answer + 1 point
  • wrong answer – 1 point
  • maximum 29 points (7 x 4 + 1)
  • to pass the test, you need to score 19 points or more
  • If a student fails all 3 terms, the ORAL credit is allowed only in case she/he achieved at least 15 points from at least one test. ORAL credit will be examined by 2 teachers, and a student has 2 attempts in maximum for passing it.
Literature -
Last update: prof. PharmDr. František Štaud, Ph.D. (24.10.2019)


  • null. . In Ritter, James Henderson, Graeme Loke, Yoon Kong MacEwan, David J. Rang, H. P.. Rang and Dale's pharmacology . null: null, 2020, s. -. ISBN 978-0-7020-7448-6..
  • null. . In Lüllmann, Heinz, Mohr, Klaus, Hein, Lutz. Color atlas of pharmacology . null: null, 2018, s. -. ISBN 978-3-13-241143-2..
  • null. . In Katzung, Bertram G. (ed.). Basic and clinical pharmacology . null: null, 2018, s. -. ISBN 978-1-259-64115-2..

Syllabus -
Last update: prof. PharmDr. František Štaud, Ph.D. (07.01.2018)

General pharmacology


  • Types of drug transport across biological membranes
  • Absorption of drugs; factors influencing absorption
  • Distribution of drugs in organism; factors influencing distribution
  • Distribution - physiological barriers
  • Metabolism of drugs; factors influencing metabolism
  • Mechanisms of drugs excretion; factors influencing excretion
  • Basic pharmacokinetic parameters, calculation, practical significance in pharmacotherapy
  • Factors influencing pharmacokinetics


  • Mechanisms of drug actions
  • Quantitative (graded) and quantal (population) dose (concentration)-response relationships. Therapeutic index
  • Drug interactions
  • Adverse and toxic effects of drugs
  • Drug dependence, basic types
  • Preclinical testing of drugs
  • Clinical testing of drugs
  • Pharmacology and human genome (pharmacogenomics)


Special pharmacology

Pharmacology of the peripheral nervous system

  • Autonomic nervous system – muscarinic agonists (parasympathomimetics). Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (indirect cholinomimetics)
  • Autonomic nervous system – muscarinic antagonists (parasympatholytics)
  • Autonomic nervous system – adrenoceptor agonists (sympathomimetics)
  • Autonomic nervous system – adrenoceptor antagonists (sympatholytics)
  • Neuromuscular-blocking drugs
  • Local anaesthetics

Pharmacology of the kidneys

  • Diuretics

Pharmacology of the cardiovascular system (and risk factors)

  • Pharmacotherapy of dyslipidaemias
  • Vasoactive drugs; pharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension
  • Pharmacotherapy and prevention of ischaemic heart disease
  • Pharmacotherapy of heart failure
  • Pharmacotherapy of cardiac dysrhythmias

Pharmacology of the CNS (part I)

  • Pharmacotherapy of Parkinson´s disease
  • Current pharmacotherapy of Alzheimer´s disease
  • General anaesthetics


  • Overview, indications, toxicity
Learning resources
Last update: prof. PharmDr. František Štaud, Ph.D. (07.01.2018)
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