PředmětyPředměty(verze: 855)
Předmět, akademický rok 2019/2020
  
Patofyziologie - EA0106014
Anglický název: Pathological Physiology
Zajišťuje: Ústav patologické fyziologie (14-90)
Fakulta: Lékařská fakulta v Plzni
Platnost: od 2019
Semestr: zimní
Body: 13
E-Kredity: 13
Způsob provedení zkoušky: zimní s.:
letní s.:
Rozsah, examinace: zimní s.:2/3 Z [hodiny/týden]
letní s.:3/4 Z+Zk [hodiny/týden]
Počet míst: zimní:neomezen / neomezen (neurčen)
letní:neomezen / neomezen (neurčen)
Minimální obsazenost: neomezen
Stav předmětu: vyučován
Jazyk výuky: angličtina
Způsob výuky: prezenční
Úroveň:  
Pro druh:  
Poznámka: odhlásit z termínu zkoušky při nesplněné rekvizitě
Garant: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D.
Vyučující: MUDr. Jan Barcal, Ph.D.
MUDr. Karel Blahna, Ph.D.
doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D.
MUDr. Karel Ježek, Ph.D.
Ing. Pavel Klein, Ph.D.
Ing. Zuzana Petránková, Ph.D.
MUDr. Zdeňka Purkartová, Ph.D.
prof. MUDr. Pavel Sobotka, DrSc.
Mgr. Martina Šalomová
RNDr. Filip Tichánek
Mgr. Jan Tůma, Ph.D.
doc. MUDr. František Vožeh, CSc.
Korekvizity : EA0103012
Prerekvizity : EA0104011, EA0104137
Je korekvizitou pro: EA0108120, EA0107015, EA0108023, EA0108024, EA0108420, EA0108030, EA0108035, EA0107033, EA0108031
Anotace -
Poslední úprava: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (24.09.2019)
Obsahem předmětu je obecná a speciální patofyziologie, tedy obecné principy patologických jevů, etiologie a patogeneze onemocnění konkrétních orgánů a orgánových systémů a jednotlivých nemocí včetně vysvětlení vztahů mezi normálními a patologickými pochody v různých orgánových systémech a na různých úrovních organismu. Vyučovány jsou i praktické dovednost související se základními medicínskými postupy zasazené do kontextu teoretických znalostí. Nezbytným předpokladem jsou znalosti z předmětů, na něž patofyziologie navazuje, tj. anatomie, histologie, embryologie, biologie, chemie a biochemie, biofyziky, fyziologie a mikrobiologie, které patofyziologie dává do vzájemných souvislostí a aplikuje je při vysvětlení podstaty nemocí a patologických procesů.
Podmínky zakončení předmětu - angličtina
Poslední úprava: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (24.09.2019)

Conditions for the credit

Winter and summer semester education is finalized with credits. Both credits are conditions for admission to the exam as well as for registration for the exam.

 

Conditions for the winter semester credit:

1. Active attending practical exercises – one absence per semester is allowed, the second absence can be tolerated by the teacher only in the case of student’s active approach to the classes (e.g. elaboration and presentation of a short lecture on a given topic, extraordinary knowledge).

2. Submitting of correctly elaborated protocols of all experiments and practical exercises verified by the teacher.

3. Passing a credit test. The credit test can be written only in appointed terms.

 

Conditions for the summer semester credit:

1. Active attending practical exercises – one absence per semester is allowed, the second absence can be tolerated by the teacher only in the case of student’s active approach to the classes (e.g. elaboration and presentation of a short lecture on a given topic, extraordinary knowledge).

2. Submitting of correctly elaborated protocols of all experiments and practical exercises verified by the teacher.

 

The conditions of the credits for students having an individual study plan, who enrolled pathophysiology for the second time, will be appointed individually in dependence on study duties passed in the previous academic year. These conditions will not exceed the range of above specified general duties.

Literatura
Poslední úprava: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (24.09.2019)

SOBOTKA et al.: Pathophysiology – Laboratory Exercises, 2013

HAMMER and McPHEE: Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine, 2014

SILBERNAGL and LANG: Color Atlas of Pathophysiology, 2016

Materials of the Department of Pathological Physiology (http://patofyziologie.lfp.cuni.cz/?page_id=219&lang=en)

 

Požadavky ke zkoušce - angličtina
Poslední úprava: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (24.09.2019)

 

The student is obliged to register for the exam before the deadline using SIS (other ways of registration will not be accepted). Registration is necessary for the regular term as well as for potential 1st re-examination or 2nd re-examination. The condition for registration for the exam is obtaining credits for both semesters.

 

The exam consists of a test, practical exam and oral exam. The test can be separated from the practical and oral exam (the student is obliged to excuse from subsequent phase of the exam and to register for one of the future terms using SIS). Practical and oral exams constitute one complex and cannot be separated into two examination terms.

 

Exam test:

If the student does not achieve the point passing limit the exam stops for this term without classification and loss of therm. In the case of the second unsuccessful test attempt the regular exam term is classified “failed”. The exam test is not a part of the first and second re-examination.

 

Practical exam:

Practical exam consists of 3 ECG records description and diagnosis setting, surgical knot and suture exam and one question related to practical exercises. To pass the practical exam, the student must show sufficient knowledge in all three parts. Failure in the practical exam means classification of the exam “failed”.

 

Oral exam:

The student draws 4 questions related to the syllabus of the subject. To pass the oral exam, the student must show sufficient knowledge in each of these 4 questions.

 

Final classification takes into consideration not only the performance in the oral exam but also the classification of the practical exam.

 

Due to capacity reasons, the exam can be divided into several days within the given exam date. Students are required to attend the appropriate stage of the exam according to the schedule or examiner's instructions.

Sylabus
Poslední úprava: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (24.09.2019)

Syllabus of patHoPHySiologY – general medicine

Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen, Charles University

2019/2020

 

The student knows the facts in the field of general and special pathophysiology, can present and logically organize them, recognize and evaluate their importance, name examples of described phenomena. The student is oriented in the problem and can explain pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases, explain how and why pathological processes happen and develop. The student can find and explain a context and relations between knowledge of various areas of pathophysiology, understand and use interrelationships of individual organ systems in normal as well as pathological states. The student has knowledge of subjects which pathophysiology follows up on, i.e. anatomy, histology, embryology, biology chemistry and biochemistry, biophysics, physiology and microbiology. The student can use this knowledge to understand pathophysiology and can find and explain their relations.

 

General pathophysiology

 

Introduction to the subject

Definition of the content of the subject, sections of the subject, relations to other subjects of the medical study, methods of pathophysiology as a science

History of pathophysiology

Definition of basic terms, definition of the terms health and disease

Etiology, the main views on the etiology of diseases

Iatrogenic, idiopathic, multifactorial diseases

Pathogenesis

General pathogenetic mechanisms, models of pathological states

Role of physiological regulatory mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diseases

Physiological and pathological parameters and phenomena, normal state versus pathology

 

Disease and its course

Disease, pathological state, nosological unit, symptom, objective and subjective manifestations of diseases, syndrome

Stages of a disease, forms of disease course, outcomes of a disease

Prognosis of diseases

 

Etiological factors

Classification of etiological factors

Etiological versus risk factors

Influenceable and uninfluenceable etiological factors

Intrinsic etiological factors

- Definition, explanation of term inborn and hereditary (disease, disorder)

  • Constitution, reactivity, circadian rhythmicity, age sex as etiological and risk factors - their basis, mechanisms of their role in disease development, examples of diseases

  • Epigenetics – definition, mechanisms, sensitive periods, examples of diseases with epigenetic basis or participation

  • Heredity

    - Basic terms

    - Types of mutations, types and mechanisms of mutation effects

    - Types of heredity, their basis and principles, mechanisms of relation between alleles

    - Examples of hereditary diseases

Extrinsic etiological factors

- Physical factors

     - Mechanical influences

       - Injuries, types of wound and their characters and specific features, wound healing and its disturbances, pathophysiological aspects of wound treatment, traumatic shock and its provoking factors and mechanisms of its development

     - Pressure of the environment (e.g. atmosphere) and its changes

     - Acute and chronic adaptations on the higher altitude

     - Altitude disease, barotrauma, decompression illness – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences, prevention

          - Hyperbaric oxygenotherapy – principles, application, mechanisms of its effects, risks

     - Noise, infrasound, ultrasound

     - Kinetosis

     - Electric current

       - Direct and alternating current, tissue as a part of an electric circuitry, biological effects of direct and alternating electric current, mechanisms of effect, comparison of effects and their level in direct and alternating electric current, electric current injuries, factors influencing character and intensity of the organism affection, principles of safety

     - Thermic influences

     - General and local (including general response of the organism) impact of cold and heat - burns (degrees – their characteristics and consequences, the second burn shock), frostbites (degrees – their characteristics and consequences), trench-foot syndrome, hypothermia, insolation, hyperthermia

       - Radiation – ionizing and non-ionizing

  - Classification of radiation, effects of different kinds of radiation on the organism and its mechanisms, radiation illness

- Chemical factors

  - Toxins

     - Ways of entrance, mechanisms of effects, toxicity quantification, elimination of toxins, manifestation of intoxication

     - Examples of important toxic substances and their effects (heavy metals, arsenic, cyanides, carbon monoxide, nitric and nitrous compounds, organophosphates, curare and its derivates, opiates, barbiturates, anticoagulants, main plant and animal poisons)

  - Corrosive substances and their effect

  - Teratogenic, mutagenic and cancerogenic substances

     - Mechanisms and consequences of their influence, examples

- Free radicals – their extrinsic and intrinsic sources, examples of free radicals, mechanisms of their action, consequences,

- Biological factors

  - Animals, plants, fungi – negative (toxicity, injuries, source of infections) and positive effects on human health

  - Infections

     - Classification (prions, viruses, bacteria, molds, protozoa, multicellular parasites – worms, mites, insects), characteristics of individual groups of infectious agents

     - Transfer mechanisms of infections and penetration of infectious agents into the organism, mechanisms of pathological effect of microorganisms and multicellular parasites

     - Factors determining sensitivity and resistance to infectious diseases

     - Examples of infectious diseases

     - Coexistence of human organism with microorganisms, examples of positive influence of microorganisms on the human (e.g. enteric microbioma)

- Social factors – examples, mechanisms of effects

Mutual influences and interactions of etiological factors

 

Developmental disorders

Stages of the ontogenetic development

Altricial and precocious types of the development

Factors determining the individual's development and its disorders

Mechanisms of developmental disorders

Critical developmental periods

Diseases and disorders linked to a certain age, changes of the reactivity and resistance dependent on age

Gametopathy, blastopathy, embryopathy, fetopathy, perinatal damage – causes, mechanisms, character of the disorders, examples

Teratogenic factors and effects

Normal and impaired CNS development and factors that affect it, brain growth spurt

 

Growth disorders

Nanism, gigantism, proportional and disproportional growth disorders

Causes and mechanisms of growth disorders

Influence of nutrition and the environment

Hereditary growth disorders

Growth disturbances of the endocrine origin

 

Aging

Basic concepts (gerontology, geriatrics, demographic aging, maximum life span, average life span, life expectancy)

Causes and mechanisms of aging, theory of aging

Manifestations of aging, changes in the ageing organism

Social and health aspects of aging, age-related illness, specifics of therapy in aged patients

Abnormal course of aging, diseases with accelerated ageing

Factor influencing the course of aging

 

Terminal states, death

Definition of death, clinical and biological death

Thanatology

Cell death and its mechanisms and causes, tissue death, death of an individual, brain death

Signs of death, determining the death of an individual

Causes and mechanisms of death

Philosophical, ethical, psychological, social aspects of death, euthanasia, dysthanasia

Dying and its stages

Lazarus syndrome

Persistent vegetative state, locked-in syndrome

 

Stress

The definition of stress, the concept of general adaptation syndrome and its history

Basic concepts - stress, stressor, eustress, distress

Stress phases

Stress response scheme, mechanisms, roles of components of the stress axes in individual stress phases

Humoral and metabolic changes during the stress response

The importance of stress for the organism

Relation of stress to pathogenesis of disease

Stress diseases - definition, mechanisms of origin, examples

Stress axes disturbances

The relationship between stress and shock

Psychosomatic and behavioral medicine, psychoneuroimmunology

 

Pathophysiology of immunity

Immunity mechanisms and their classification

Classification of disorders and diseases of the immune system

Immunodeficiency

- Causes, pathogenesis, symptoms and consequences, characteristics and examples of disorders of individual components of the immune system

- Examples of congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, their causes, pathogenesis and manifestations

Allergy

- Causes of allergic diseases

- Allergization, cross- allergy

- Types of allergic reaction, their mechanisms, manifestations, consequences

- Anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock

- Examples of illnesses

Autoimmune diseases

- Causes, pathogenesis, symptoms and consequences

- Examples of autoimmune diseases, their pathogenesis, manifestation and consequences

Inflammation

- Definition of inflammation

- Components of inflammatory reaction, course of inflammation

- Localized and systemic inflammatory manifestations and mechanisms of their origin

- The importance of inflammation for the organism

- Acute and chronic inflammation

- Inflammation as a pathogenic agent

- Inflammation suppression

- Systemic inflammatory response - definition, course and symptoms, causes, mechanisms

Sepsis, septicemia, bacteremia

Transplantation

- Definition, purpose and types of transplantation

- Transplantation immunology, host-versus-graft reaction, graft-versus-host reaction

- Transplant rejection

- Types of transplant rejection, their course and mechanisms

- Prevention of transplant rejection

 

Pathophysiology of thermoregulation, fever

Control and mechanisms of thermoregulation

Terminology of body temperature changes, limit values of body temperature in relation of changes in the organism and its functions

Overheating (hyperthermia) and hypothermia of the organism, their causes, manifestations and consequences

Fever

- Definition, types of fever and its course

- Causes and mechanisms of fever

- The importance of fever for the organism

- Fever accompanying changes in the organism

- The risks and complications of fever

Febrile seizures – definition, occurrence, course, consequences, prevention, therapeutic approaches

Malignant hyperthermia – definition, causes and occurrence, inducing factors, pathogenesis, consequences, therapy principles

Controlled hypothermia - definition, principle, application, advantages, disadvantages, risks

 

Pathophysiology of tumors

Definition of tumors

Epidemiology of tumors

Classification of tumors

Malignant and benign tumors, their characteristics, biological and clinical malignancy of ttumors

Causes and mechanisms of tumor formation

- Tumorigenesis, carcinogenic factors, protooncogenes, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes

- Chemical and physical carcinogens, infectious etiology of tumors, tumor inheritance, role of immunity, endocrine factors

- Immunology of tumors

Tumor metabolism

Local and systemic effects of tumors on the organism

Expansive and invasive tumor growth

Tumor metastasis - ways and consequences

Paraneoplastic phenomena - definition, mechanisms, examples

Tumor markers

Principles of tumor therapy and prevention

 

 

Special pathophysiology

 

Pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system

General mechanisms of blood circulation disturbances and their consequences

Inborn heart defects

- Risk and etiologic factors of inborn heart defects

- Classification, division and characteristics of inborn heart defects

- Cyanotic, non-cyanotic, late cyanotic defects

- Hemodynamic consequences, manifestations and complications of individual heart defects, secondary changes and reactions of the organism as consequences of inborn heart defects

Acquired heart defects

- Etiology and risk factors, mechanisms of acquired heart defect development

- Classification and overview of acquired heart defects, orifice stenosis, valvular insufficiency, characteristics of individual defects

- Manifestations, hemodynamic consequences, secondary changes induced by acquired heart defects

Endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis – etiology, risk factors, consequences

Disturbances of peripheral blood circulation

- Factors influencing blood perfusion of the tissues under physiological and pathological conditions

- Angiopathy, vasculitis – causes, consequences, examples of diseases

- Ischemia

  - Causes, mechanisms of origin, consequences and manifestations

  - Ischemia-reperfusion injury

- Passive and active hyperemia - causes, mechanisms, consequences and manifestations

Atherosclerosis

- Pathological-anatomical description, stable and unstable atherosclerotic plaques

- Etiology and risk factors, prevention

- Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

- Consequences, examples of diseases connected with atherosclerosis (ischemic heart disease, ischemic disease of the lower extremities, brain ischemia etc.)

Endothelial dysfunction – causes, pathogenesis, consequences

Ischemic heart disease (IHD)

- Definition, classification (forms of IHD), diagnostics

- Causes, risk factors, pathogenesis

- Specifics of coronary circulation, mechanisms of subendocardial and subepicardial ischemia

- Myocardial infarction

  - Pathogenesis, manifestation, types, consequences

  - Acute and chronic complications of the myocardial infarction and their pathogenesis

  - Zones of different affection of the myocardium, factors determining myocardial affection extent

- Angina pectoris stable and unstable, Prinzmetal (variant) type – pathogenesis, manifestations

- Arrhythmic form of the ischemic heart disease

- Sudden death

Arrhythmias

- Classification, characteristics of individual arrhythmias, causes and mechanisms of origin, reentry phenomenon, R-on-T phenomenon, hemodynamic consequences of particular arrhythmias, impact on the organism, manifestations, ECG diagnosis

- Hemodynamic effects of tachycardia (including sinusal tachycardia), impact on the heart, physiological and pathological mechanisms of induction of sinusal tychycardia

Pulseless electrical activity

Prolonged QT interval syndrome

Syndrome of premature repolarization

Arterial hypertension

- Definition, normal and pathological values of blood pressure

- Factors determining systolic and diastolic blood pressure under normal and pathological conditions

- Systolic and diastolic hypertension

- Essential hypertension - etiological and risk factors, prevention, manifestation and consequences

- Secondary hypertension - definition, causes, examples of diseases, complications

- Malignant hypertension – definition, causes, pathogenesis, consequences, complications

Cardiac insufficiency and failure

- Definition, causes, pathogenesis, acute and chronic form

- Functional disturbances of the right and left heart

- Systolic and diastolic dysfunction – causes, pathogeny, consequences

- Volume and pressure overload of the heart

- Compensatory mechanisms, their importance and role in pathogenesis of consequences of the heart overload and insufficiency

- Consequences and manifestations of individual disorders of the heart function

- Cor dextrum translatum

- Heart tamponade

- Asthma cardiale

Hypertrophy and dilatation of individual parts of the heart – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

Cardiomyopathy – definition, classification, causes, pathogenesis, manifestation and consequences

Pulmonary hypertension - causes, pathogenesis, manifestation and consequences, cor pulmonale

Thromboembolic disease - causes, risk factors, pathogenesis, consequences, prevention

Circulatory shock cardiogenic, hypovolemic, septic, anaphylactic

- Causes, characteristics, pathogenesis, course and consequences of individual types of the circulatory shock

- Compensation, decompensation, irreversible shock phase

Syncope

 

Multiorgan dysfunction and multiorgan failure

- Definition of the concepts, characteristics, causes, pathogenesis and consequences

 

Pathophysiology of the lymphatic system

- Importance and disorders of the lymphatic system

- Lymphedema – causes, consequences and manifestations

 

Pathophysiology of the blood

Changes of blood volume and composition

- Normo-, hypo- a hypervolemia normocytemic, oligocytemic and hypercytemic

- Causes, pathogenesis, manifestation and consequences

Changes of blood plasma composition

- Disorders of protein spectrum, changes of organic and anorganic substances, their causes, pathogenesis and consequences

Pathophysiology of erythrocytes

- Factors determining amount and concentration of erythrocytes in the blood

- Anemias

  - Definition of anemia, laboratory indicators of anemia

  - Anemic syndrome

  - Classification of anemias

     - Normocytic, microcytic, macrocytic; normochromic, hypochromic

     - Etiopathogenetic classification of anemias

       - Anemias caused by insufficient RBC production

       - Anemias caused by increased loss of RBC

         - Anemia caused by acute and chronic bleeding

         - Hemolytic anemias corpuscular and extracorpuscular

  - Characteristics, etiology, pathogenesis and manifestations of individual types of anemias

  - List of diseases involved in individual types of anemias and their pathophysiology

- Disorders of erythrocytes

  - Hereditary defects of erythrocytes (hemoglobinopathies, enzymatic defects, membrane defects, cytoskeleton defects)

  - Intoxications with change of hemoglobin properties

- Polycythemia, polyglobulia – definition of the terms, etiology, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

- Intravascular and extravascular hemolysis - causes, mechanisms, consequences

- Acute and chronic bleeding – causes, impact on blood composition, response of the organism

- Blood groups, transfusion and its risks, incompatibility, fetal erythroblastosis, their pathogenesis and consequences

Pathophysiology of leukocytes

- Classification and function of leukocytes

- Leukocyte function disorders, congenital and acquired leukocyte-related immune deficiencies

- Changes of leukocyte number (total and individual types of leukocytes), leukocytosis, leukopenia – causes, consequences

- Leukemias, lymphomas – classification, etiology, pathogenesis, manifestation, impacts on the organism

Hemorrhagic diathesis

- Definition, classification

- Inborn and acquired hemorrhagic diathesis: Bleeding related to platelets (thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathies), coagulopathies (including pharmacologically induced), vasculopathies - causes, pathogenesis, manifestations, pathophysiology of particular diseases

- Pharmacologically induced changes of hemostasis – groups of medicaments, examples of medicaments, mechanisms and impacts of their effects, risks, manifestations and consequences of overdosing, possibilities of hemostasis correction in overdosed patients, patients in which use of these medicaments should be expected

Thrombotic states – definition, causes and risk factors, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences, pathophysiology of the thromboembolic disease

Disseminated intravascular coagulation – definition, causes and inducing factors, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

 

Pathophysiology of the respiratory system

Breathing description, process of gas exchange between external environment and the tissue cells, external and internal breathing, basic processes in the lungs (ventilation, diffusion, perfusion) and factors determining them under physiological and pathological conditions

Definitions of basic concepts (hypoxia, hypoxemia, asphyxia, hypercapnia, hypocapnia, dyspnea, orthopnea)

Hypoxic, transport, circulatory and histotoxic hypoxia

- Characteristics of individual types, causes, mechanisms of origin

- Manifestations and consequences, response of the organism, compensatory mechanisms and their efficiency, role of compensatory responses of the organism in pathogenesis of negative consequences of and complications of the primary pathology

Central and peripheral cyanosis - definition, mechanism of origin, factors determining its development

Respiratory insufficiency partial and global - definition, etiology and pathogenesis, mechanisms of changes of respiratory gases

Disorders of lung ventilation

- Characteristics of obstructive and restrictive disorders including spirometric diagnosis

- Description of particular diseases, their etiology and pathogenesis

Disorders of lung diffusion and perfusion

- Relation between ventilation and perfusion and its changes in pathological states

- Description of individual diseases, their etiology, pathogenesis

Disorders of breathing control, disorders or respiratory muscles and their innervation

Pathophysiology of the asthma bronchiale

Pathophysiology of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Pathophysiology of emphysema

Pathophysiology of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

Pathophysiology of altitude sickness

Pathophysiology of the pleural cavity

- Pneumothorax – definition, mechanisms of origin, classification (open, closed and tension pneumothorax), pathogenesis and consequences of individual types

- Hemothorax, hydrothorax, chylothorax

Pathophysiology of the lung edema

Pathophysiology of the lung (pneumonia) and airway (rhinitis, sinusitis, epiglotitis, laryngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis) inflammation

Consequences of aspiration, drowning

Pathophysiology of lung fibrosis

Lung manifestation of the cystic fibrosis

Pathophysiology of the syndrome of sleep apnea

Pathophysiology of symptoms of respiratory diseases and respiratory reflexes (cough, chest pain, dyspnea, cyanosis)

 

Pathophysiology of the excretory system

Assessment of renal function (examination of dilution and concentration function, determination of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, clearance of important substances)

Anuria, oliguria, polyuria - definitions of terms, causes and mechanisms of their origin

Autoregulation of kidney perfusion and glomerular filtration and its disorders

The role of the kidneys in blood pressure regulation under physiological and pathological conditions

Disorders of kidney perfusion, glomerular and tubular functions – etiology, pathogenesis, consequences

Pathophysiology of acute renal failure

- Prerenal, renal and postrenal causes and their mechanisms

- Oliguric and polyuric form of renal failure and their impact on the organism

Pathophysiology of chronic renal failure

- Causes, pathogenesis, mechanisms of compensation for decreased functional renal capacity, mechanisms of renal failure progression

- Uremic syndrome - pathogenesis, manifestations

Nephrotic and nephritic syndromes

Pathophysiology of endocrine functions of the kidneys

Methods of substitution of renal functions –principle of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, pathophysiology of the dialysis disequilibrium syndrome

Pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases of the kidneys

Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Proteinuria – causes and consequences

Hematuria and its causes

Infections of the uropoietic system – risk factors, manifestations and consequences

Urolithiasis – etiology, risk factors, factors supporting concrement development, consequences

Obstruction of the urinary tract – causes, consequences, hydronephrosis

 

Pathophysiology of metabolism and internal environment – basic part

Homeostasis, its mechanisms and general principles of homeostasis disturbances

Pathophysiology of energetic metabolism, basal metabolism and its changes, excessive and insufficient energetic intake, obesity, emaciation

Pathophysiology of protein and amino acid metabolism

- Proteins as a nutrient, importance of essential aminoacids and consequences of their deficiency, protein malnutrition

- Protein and aminoacid digestion and resorption disorders

- Pathological proteins

- Nitrogen balance and its disorders, metabolism of nitrogenous substances and its disorders, azotemia

- Hereditary disorders of amino acid metabolism

Pathophysiology of lipid metabolism

- Importance of lipids and lipid-soluble substances in nutrition, causes, manifestations and consequences of their deficiency or excess

- Disorders of digestion and absorption of lipids and lipoid substances – their causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences, context with fat soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids

- Disorders of metabolism of apolipoproteins and cholesterol, hypercholesterolemia and its causes and consequences

- Lipidoses – etiology, pathogenesis, manifestations, examples of diseases

Pathophysiology of carbohydrate metabolism

- Carbohydrates in the nutrition, causes and consequences of their deficit or excess

- Disorders of carbohydrate digestion and absorption - causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

- Disorders of metabolism of particular carbohydrates (galactosemia, fructosuria, lactose intolerance, glycogenoses, mucopolysaccharidoses etc.) – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations

Disorder of glycaemia regulation

- Mechanisms of glycemia regulation and their disorders

- Causes, manifestations and consequences of hyperglycemia

- Causes, manifestations and consequences of hypoglycemia

- Maintenance of glycaemia during starvation and excessive saccharide intake

Diabetes mellitus

- Definition, classification, characteristics of each type

- Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 1

- Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus type 2

- MODY, gestation diabetes, steroid diabetes, renal diabetes and other types of diabetes mellitus

- Acute and chronic complications of the diabetes mellitus

- Diabetic hyperosmolar and ketoacidotic coma – occurrence, pathogenesis, manifestations

- Pathophysiologic aspects of the treatment of the diabetes mellitus

Metabolic syndrome and its pathophysiology, insulin resistance – definition, components of the metabolic syndrome, causes and risk factors, pathogenesis, consequences and complications, relation to the diabetes mellitus

Pathophysiology of calcium metabolism

- Distribution and forms of calcium in an organism, the role of pH

- Regulation of calcium metabolism and its disorder, role of parathormone, calcitonin and D vitamin

- The Role of the kidneys and disorders of their function in calcium metabolism

- Syndrome of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia – causes, mechanisms of their development, manifestations and consequences

- Impact of calcium metabolism disorders on the bones

- Tetany – characteristics, causes and mechanisms of its origin

- Calcification of the tissues and its causes

Pathophysiology of sodium, potassium and chloride metabolism

- Metabolism of sodium, potassium and chlorides, disorders of its regulation

- Disorders of sodium, potassium and chloride intake

- Causes and mechanisms of development of increased or decreased content of the ions in the organism and increased and decreased concentrations of the ions in body fluids

- Manifestations and consequences of disorders of sodium, potassium and chloride metabolism

Pathophysiology of trace elements

  • Disorders of trace element metabolism

  • Causes and mechanisms of lack or excess of trace elements

  • Manifestations of lack or excess of trace elements

 

Pathophysiology of body fluids

Compartments of body water

Osmolality of body fluid, its principle, factors determining body fluid osmolality in individual compartments under physiological and pathological conditions

Changes in volume and osmolality of body fluids

- Factors determining transfer of water between individual compartments under physiological and pathological circumstances

- Dehydration and hyperhydration hypoosmolar, isoosmolar, hyperosmolar - their causes, mechanisms, characteristics, consequences

Edema

- Definition

- Basic mechanisms (factors) leading to the formation of edema - hydrostatic pressure, oncotic pressure, vascular wall permeability, lymphatic drainage

- Situations and processes leading to the involvement of the basic mechanisms of the formation of edema

- Types of edema by cause (cardiac, renal, inflammatory, lymphatic, venostatic, hepatic, cytotoxic, angioneurotic – Quincke’s edema) - characteristics, examples of a particular diseases, mechanisms

- Local impact of the edema on the tissue (perfusion, metabolism, transport of substances etc.), systemic impacts of severe edema on the organism, specific impacts of edema of particular tissues and organs

- Special types of edema and fluid accumulation in body cavities – examples (ascites, expansion of fluid in the pleural cavity, pericardium, joints, anasarca etc.), their causes, mechanisms of their development, manifestations and consequences

 

Disorders of acid-base balance

Definition of basal concepts, components and parameters of acid-base balance

Mechanisms of acid-base balance maintenance

Buffer systems

- Buffer definition, mechanisms of action, buffer capacity

- Examples of buffers, importance of bicarbonate buffer

The role of lungs in maintaining acid-base balance

The renal role in maintaining acid-base balance

Acidosis, acidemia, alkalosis, alkalemia

Types of acid-base balance disorders

- Respiratory disorders of acid-base balance

- Metabolic disorders of acid-base balance

- Combined acid-base balance disorders

Compensation of individual types of acid-base balance disorders

Causes of individual types of acid-base balance disorders and their combinations

Symptoms and consequences of acid-base balance disorders

 

Pathophysiology of nutrition

Food intake disorders, malnutrition, anorexia, bulimia

Pathophysiology of starvation

Obesity - causes, types including obesity of endocrine origin, health risks

Rational diet - composition, importance of individual components, consequences of lack and excess of individual components, including essential substances and fiber

Carbohydrates, fats and proteins as food components – sources, disorders of their intake

Vitamins

- Fat soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins

- List of individual vitamins, their importance for the organism, sources of vitamins

- Hypovitaminoses and hypervitaminoses - causes, consequences, manifestations and mechanisms of their development

Minerals, trace elements (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, iron, zinc, copper, selenium)

- List of important substances and their importance for the organism

- Sources of minerals and trace elements

- Causes, manifestations and consequences of their lack and surplus

 

Pathophysiology of the liver

Indicators of hepatic function and its deterioration

Causes and mechanisms of hepatic disorders

Symptoms and consequences of hepatic dysfunction, acute and chronic hepatic insufficiency

Hepatic encephalopathy

Hepatorenal syndrome

Liver cirrhosis - etiology, pathogenesis, symptoms and consequences

Alcoholic liver injury

Viral and autoimmune hepatitis

Portal hypertension

- Causes, pathogenesis, symptoms and consequences

- Pathophysiologic aspects of portocaval anastomoses

Ascites - causes, pathogenesis, symptoms and consequences

Hyperbilirubinemia and prehepatic, hepatic and posthepatic icterus

- Causes, pathogenesis, consequences, differential diagnosis and its explanation

Pathophysiology of the bile tract – obstruction, cholelithiasis, inflammation – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

 

Pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract

Pathophysiology of the oral cavity

- Saliva secretion disorders, Sjögren’s syndrome

- Disorders of food processing in the oral cavity

- Diseases of the oral cavity mucous membrane, manifestations of systemic diseases in the oral cavity

Pathophysiology of the esophagus

- Achalasia

- Esophageal diverticles – classification, causes and mechanism of their development, complications

- Hiatus hernia – types, consequences

- Pathophysiology of the gastroesophageal reflux – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

- Consequences of perforation of the esophagus

- Esophageal varices – causes and mechanisms of their development, complications

Pathophysiology of the stomach

- Disorders of stomach secretion and motility

- Pathophysiology of gastroduodenal ulcer disease and its complications

- Gastritis, pernicious anemia

Pathophysiology of the small and large intestine

- Disorders of digestion and absorption of substances in the intestines

- Disorders of bowel secretion and motility

- Pathophysiology of the ileus - types, causes, pathogenesis and consequences

- Intestinal diverticles

- Crohn’s disease, ulcerous colitis, gluten intolerance

- Intestinal tumors – etiology, risk factors, consequences

Pathophysiology of exocrine pancreas

- Acute and chronic pancreatitis - etiology, pathogenesis, course and consequences

- Pancreatic secretion disorders - etiology, pathogenesis, consequences of decreased secretion

- Cystic fibrosis of the pancreas

Disorders of swallowing and dysphagia

Nausea and vomiting – mechanisms, vomiting reflex, causes, complications

Dyspepsia – definition, causes

Constipation - definition, causes, pathogenesis, consequences, prevention

Diarrhea - definition, causes, pathogenesis, consequences

Bleeding into the gastrointestinal tract – causes, manifestations and consequences, diagnosis and origin location

Role of the microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract

 

 

 

Pathophysiology of the endocrine system

Principles of function of the endocrine system, principles of endocrine regulations under physiological and pathological conditions

General causes of diseases of the endocrine glands

Mechanisms of endocrine disorders

Classification of diseases of the endocrine glands, hypofunction, hyperfunction, eufunction

Pathophysiology of endocrine function of the hypothalamus

- The role of the hypothalamus in the hypothalamus- pituitary-peripheral glans systems

- Hypothalamic endocrine syndromes

Pathophysiology of the hypothalamus-neurohypophysis system

- Oxytocin – importance in medicine, role in behavior control

- Vasopressin (ADH)

  - Origin, function and regulation of secretion of ADH

  - Central and peripheral diabetes insipidus – causes, pathogenesis, consequences and manifestations

  - Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion – causes, pathogenesis, consequences and manifestations, compensatory processes

Disorders of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis

  - Primary, secondary and tertiary disorders

  - Hypothalamic statins and liberins and disorders of their production, distribution and function

  - Adenohypophyseal hyper- and hypofunction syndromes – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations

  - Dysfunction of the adenohypophysis – causes, pathogenesis, manifestation

  - Manifestations and consequences of tumors of the adenohypophysis

  - Manifestations and consequences of interruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary junction

Pathophysiology of the thyroid gland – thyroid hormones

- Regulation of the thyroid gland function, effects of thyroid hormones, the importance of iodine

- Reverse T3 and its role in normal and pathological situations, euthyroid sick syndrome

- Hyperthyroidism – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations (hyperthyroid syndrome) and consequences, thyrotoxic crisis

- Hypothyroidism inborn or acquired in the childhood

  - Causes, manifestation, cretinism, role of an euthyroid or hypothyroid mother, endemic cretinism

- Hypothyroidism acquired in the adulthood

  - Causes, manifestations (adult hypothyroid syndrome), myxedema, myxedema coma

- Pathophysiology of the thyroid gland inflammations – Graves-Basedow disease, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

- Goiter

  - Eufunction, hyperfunction and hypofunction goiter – causes, mechanisms of development, manifestations

  - Goitergenes

  - Endemic goiter, ectopic goiter

  - Nodes in the thyroid gland

Pathophysiology of the sex hormones

- Production of the sex hormones and its regulation, metabolism of sex hormones and disorders of these processes, role of the fat tissue in conversion of the sex hormones

- Hypergonadotropic and hypogonadotropic hyper- and hypogonadisms and their manifestations in dependence on the stage of the ontogenetic development, causes and mechanisms of the disorders

- Pathological and abnormal sources of the sex hormones

Pathophysiology of the adrenal cortex

- Structure and function of the adrenal cortex in relation to adrenal disorders

- Regulation of the adrenal cortex and its disorders

- Hypercorticalisms

  - Classification according to individual hormones and origin of the disorder

  - Cushing’s syndrome - causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

  - Conn’s syndrome - causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

  - Secondary hyperaldosteronism

     - Mechanisms of origin, manifestations, role in pathogenesis of diseases

  - Overproduction of the sex hormones in the adrenal cortex - causes, manifestations and consequences

- Hypofunction of the adrenal cortex

  - Selective insufficiency of the glucocorticoids – causes, manifestations and consequences

  - Hypoaldosteronism - causes, manifestations and consequences

  - The Addison’s disease – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences, Addisonian crisis

Pathophysiology of the adrenal medulla and sympatoadrenal system, the pheochromocytoma

Pathophysiology of the parathyroid glands

- Primary and secondary hyper- and hypoparathyroidism, pseudohyperparathyroidism - causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

Pathophysiology of calcitonin – role in pathogenesis of the diseases, importance in medicine

Pathophysiology of the endocrine pancreas (Langerhans islets) - hyper- and hypofunction syndromes of individual hormones of the pancreas

Pathophysiology of natriuretic factors – their role in regulation of natremia and homeostasis of body fluids in physiological and pathological situations

Pathophysiology of the APUD system

Pathophysiology of the epiphysis

Pathophysiology of endocrine activity of the fat tissue

 

Pathophysiology of the reproductive system

Disorders of man and woman fertility, sterility, infertility

Disorders of sex differentiation – list and classification of the disorders, manifestations and mechanisms of development

Pathophysiology of the male and female gonads – particular diseases, their causes, pathogenesis and manifestations

Preliminary puberty (pubertas and pseudopubertas praecox) and delayed puberty – definition, causes, manifestations

Disorders of menstruation – terminology, causes and pathogenesis

Pathophysiology of gravidity and parturition

- Complications of gravidity

- Early and late gestosis

- Perinatal complications – causes and consequences

- Fetal erythroblastosis

 

Pathophysiology of the bones

Causes and mechanisms of disorders and diseases of the bones and disorders of the skeleton development

Osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, osteodystrophia fibrosa cystica (morbus Recklinghausen), osteogenesis imperfecta – causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

Arthritis – causes, pathogenesis, consequences

Degenerative changes of the joints and the vertebral column – causes, risk factors, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

 

Pathophysiology of the muscles

Control of skeletal muscle activity and its disorders

Motor unit and mechanisms and manifestations of change of its size

Tetanic contractions and their importance in pathological situations

Tetany and role of calcium

Rigor mortis

Energetics of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue, oxygen debt

Basic types of muscle diseases, manifestations of diseases of the skeletal muscles and their innervation, changes of muscle tone, fibrillation, fasciculation of the muscle

Manifestations of disorder skeletal muscle function

Myopathic syndrome

Myotonia

Muscle atrophy – definition, character, causes, manifestations

Muscle hypertrophy - definition, character, causes, manifestations

Pseudohypertrophy of the muscle – definition, causes, occurrence

Abnormal muscle contractions – examples, characteristics

Endocrine, metabolic, toxic, mitochondrial myopathies

Muscular dystrophias

- Causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

- Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

Myositis

Rhabdomyolysis – definition, causes, consequences and their mechanisms

Crush syndrome – definition, consequences

Compartment syndrome – definition, causes and inducing factors, pathogenesis

Malignant hyperthermia

Diseases and disorders of function of the smooth muscles

 

Pathophysiology of the nervous system

Specifics of the nervous system from pathophysiology point of view, general principles of disorders of the nervous system, irritation and extinction disorders

General causes of disorders and illnesses of the nervous system, functional, organic and metabolic affections of the nervous system

Pathophysiology of the cerebrospinal fluid

- Hydrocephalus – definition, classification, causes, pathogenesis, manifestations and consequences

- Loss of the cerebrospinal fluid – causes, manifestations

- Changes of character of the cerebrospinal fluid and their importance for disease diagnosis

Disorders of the synaptic and non-synaptic transmission, receptors, neurotransmitters and channels

Abnormal excitation and inhibition and their role in pathologic states

Disorders of peripheral nerves

- Causes and mechanisms of peripheral nerve damage

- Mononeuropathy, polyneuropathy, neuritis

- Guillaine-Barré syndrome

- Manifestations of damage of peripheral motor, sensitive, vegetative and mixed nerves, specific manifestations of damage of important cranial and spinal nerves

- Process of degeneration of an injured nerve fiber and its manifestations

- Causes and manifestations of spinal root affection

Pathophysiology of the spinal cord

- Causes and mechanisms of spinal cord damage and illnesses

- Spinal shock - definition, manifestations, dynamics of functional changes

- Manifestations of damages of particular spinal cord structures in sensitive, motor and vegetative functions

- Manifestations of transversal spinal cord lesion

  - General symptoms bellow and on the lesion level

  - Specific manifestations according to damage of particular spinal segments

- Brown-Sequard spinal hemisyndrome

- Spinal ataxia

- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

- Poliomyelitis anterior acuta

- Syringomyelia

Pathophysiology of the brain stem

- Causes and mechanisms of brain stem damage and disease

- Disorders of the respiratory center

- Disorders of the cardiovascular center

- Alternating brain stem syndromes, bulbar and pseudobulbar paralysis

- Pathophysiology of the reticular formation

  - Manifestations of functional disturbance of ascending and descending reticular formation, system, decerebrate and decorticate rigidity, „cerveau isolé“ and „encéphale isolé“ syndromes, apallic syndrome

Pathophysiology of the cerebellum

- Causes and mechanisms of cerebellar damages

- Overview of hereditary cerebellar diseases

- Extinction cerebellar syndrome

  - Cerebellar motor syndrome – cerebellar ataxia, tremor, passivity, their manifestations

  - Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome

  - Variability of extinction cerebellar syndrome in dependence on damage localization

- Cerebellar irritation syndrome

Pathophysiology of the hypothalamus – causes and manifestations of hypothalamic damages

Pathophysiology of the thalamus - causes and manifestations of thalamic damages

Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia

- Causes and mechanisms of affection of the basal ganglia and their function

- Hypotonic-hyperkinetic syndromes

- Hypertonic-hypokinetic (parkinsonian) syndrome

Pathophysiology of the brain cortex – mechanisms, causes and manifestations of individual areas of the brain cortex

Pathophysiology of the hippocampus – causes and manifestations of hippocampal disorders

Pathophysiology of the limbic system – causes and manifestation of disorders of particular parts of the limbic system

Pathophysiology of vegetative nervous system

- Control of vegetative functions and its disorders, vegetative imbalance

- Functional characteristics and anatomical arrangement of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, general manifestations of their disorders, specific manifestations of damages of particular structural components of the vegetative system

- Pharmacologically induced disorders of vegetative system function

Pathophysiology of the motor system

- Paralysis

- Definition, types of paralysis - (spastic) and peripheral paralysis (flaccid), pathophysiological background for of the classification

- Causes of central and peripheral paralysis

- Characteristics of central and peripheral paralysis and their manifestations

- Distribution of central and peripheral paralysis on the body and its relation to localization of the lesion in the motor system

- Ataxias

  - Definition, cerebellar, spinal and vestibular ataxia

  - Causes, mechanisms and character of particular types of ataxias, differential diagnosis

- Involuntary muscle contractions, central and peripheral convulsions – classification, pathophysiology, consequences

Pathophysiology of neuromuscular transmission

- Functional and structural characteristics of the neuromuscular plate in relation to mechanism of its function disturbances

- Mechanisms of neuromuscular transmission disorders, examples of particular types of disorders

- Pathophysiology of the myasthenia gravis

- Pharmacological and toxic influence on neuromuscular transmission

- Pathophysiology of calcium modulation of neuromuscular excitability

Pathophysiology of behavior and affectivity

- Disorders of drives, motivations, instincts and emotions

- Depression, mania, neurotic disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder

- Mental disorders of organic origin

- Symptoms of disorders of the prefrontal cortex, limbic system, amygdaloid nucleus

- Pathophysiology of the schizophrenia

- Autism spectrum disorders

Pathophysiology of learning and memory

- Fundamental terminology

- Causes and mechanisms of learning and memory disorders

- Dementias, mental retardations

Disorders of phatic functions – aphasias, aprosodia, agraphia, alexia, dyslexia

Disorders of gnostic functions - agnosias

Disorders of practice functions – apraxias

Qualitative and quantitative disorders of consciousness, coma – characteristics, classification, causes and pathogenesis

Pathophysiology of sleep and biological rhythms

- Terminology, classification of biological rhythms

- Control of biological rhythms, inner period, synchronization with external conditions

- Disorders of biological rhythms

- Sleep disorders – causes, mechanisms of origin, hypersomnia, insomnia, examples of disorders

- Sleep hygiene

Developmental disorders of the nervous system

- Factors determining appropriate and inappropriate development of the nervous system structure and function

- Inborn developmental disorders of the nervous system

- Developmental disorders of nervous system function

Neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders and their pathophysiology (Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, sclerosis multiplex and other examples)

Inflammations of the nervous system

Pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases

Pathophysiology of the epilepsy

- Definition of epilepsy as an illness, definition of an epileptic seizure

- Causes and pathogenesis of the epilepsy and mechanisms of epileptic seizure development, epileptogenesis

- Classification of epileptic seizures, characteristics of their particular types

Intracranial hypertension

- Definition, origin of the phenomenon

- Causes and mechanisms of intracranial hypertension

- Consequences of the intracranial hypertension, its impact on brain perfusion and metabolism of the brain tissue, brain conuses and their consequences

Brain edema pathophysiology

- Types, causes and mechanisms of the brain edema origin and development

- Symptoms and consequences of the brain edema

 

Pathophysiology of the sensory systems

Pathophysiology of vision

- Pathophysiology of the eye

  - Disorders of the optic system of the eye – changes of transparency and optical power, disorders of accommodation, hypermetropia, myopia, astigmatism

  - Diseases of the retina

  - Pathophysiology of the glaucoma

  - Injuries of the eye ball, inflammatory and autoimmune eye affections

- Oculomotor disorders, strabism, diplopia

  - Exophthalmos, enophthalmos, Claude-Bernard-Horner’s syndrome

  - Argyll-Robertson’s syndrome, inverted Argyll-Robertson’s syndrome

- Pathophysiology of the visual pathway and visual cortex

  - Causes and consequences of affection of particular parts of the visual tract

  - Disorders of cortical processing of the visual stimuli

Pathophysiology of the auditory system

- Perceptive and conductive hearing disorders – causes, mechanisms, manifestations, differential diagnosis

- Disorders of the auditory pathway and cortical processing of auditory stimuli

Pathophysiology of the vestibular system

- Causes and pathogenesis of vestibular system disorders

- Manifestations of vestibular disorders – nystagmus (including methods of its experimental provocation), vestibular ataxia, kinetosis

Pathophysiology of the somatosensory system

- Modalities of the somatosensory system, their receptors and pathways in relation to their disorders

- Basic terms naming abnormal perceptions or disorders of somatic perception

- Causes, pathogenesis and manifestations of disorders of somesthesia originating on individual levels of the somatosensory system

- Complex and dissociated disorder of perception (tabic and syringomyelic dissociation of sensation)

Pathophysiology of olfaction and taste

Pain

- Definition of pain and related basic terms

- Aspects and biological and clinical importance of pain

- Processes of nociception

  - Transduction

     - Nociceptors – characteristics and classification

     - Nociceptive stimuli

     - Mechanisms of transduction (TRPV1, H+-activated channels, purinergic receptors, mechanically activated ion channels)

  - Transmission – nociceptive pathways and their disorders

  - Pain modulation

     - Peripheral and central sensitization

     - Historical importance of the gait control theory

     - Stress analgesia - opioid and non-opioid

- Pain types

  - According to its duration

  - According to its cause

  - According to its localization, explanation of the referred pain phenomenon

- Disorders of pain perception (inborn and acquired diseases, disorders and syndromes with missing or reduced pain sensation)

- Neuropathic (neurogenic) pain – central and peripheral

  - Definition and characteristics

  - Causes and mechanisms of origin of the neuropathic pain, examples of neuropathic pain

- Painful syndromes and states (anesthesia dolorosa, phantom pain, thalamic pain, radicular pain) – characteristics, causes and mechanisms

- Pathophysiological aspects of (pharmacological, surgical, neuromodulation, psychological) pain treatment

- Headache - primary (functional – migraine, cluster headache, tension cephalea) and secondary (organic)

 

 

Practical knowledge and skills

 

The student can present an overview of the problem and describe relevant facts in the respective field. He can apply the knowledge practically, relate it theoretical knowledge, understand the context and correctly perform practical skills.

 

Principles of science

Scientific hypothesis

Experiment

Controlled, blind, double blind study

Laboratory animals

- Importance for biomedical research

- The most important and most commonly used types of laboratory animals

- Genetics of laboratory animals - strains genetically defined, partially defined, undefined

- Gnotobiology of laboratory animals - categories, ways of breeding

- Principles of working with laboratory animals

- Alternative methods

 

Statistics

Definition and scope of statistics, basic terms

Statistical set, importance of sample size

Statistical variables

Data presentation

Statistical surveys

Hypothesis testing

Statistical and biological significance

 

Injection technique, pathophysiological aspects of injection administration

Basic principles of injection technique

Types of injections for systemic and local application of substances - characteristics, use, principles

Pathophysiology of complications of injections

Calculation of the applied dose

 

Pathophysiological aspects of wound treatment

Basic surgical instruments and their applications

Types of surgical needles and threads, their use

Types of surgical sewing materials (absorbable, non-absorbable, monofilament, braided) - use, features, advantages and disadvantages, examples, fiber strength

Threading the surgical needle, surgical knot

Surgical stitches

- Single simple stitch, serial stitch, single and serial mattress stitch, single and serial Donati stitch, single and serial Allgöwer stitch, intradermal stitch, tobacco stitch

- Advantages and disadvantages of particular stitches

- Principles of surgical sewing in respect to wound healing course

Extraction of stitches

Asepsis, antisepsis - definition of concepts, methods, preparation of the surgical field

 

Use of electricity in medicine

Active and passive electrical properties of tissues

Ohm's law

Electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electromyography, electroneurography, electrooculography

Examination of the presence of muscle mass, fat and its distribution and water in the body

 

Electrocardiography

Principles of ECG examination, leads, electrodes, Einthoven’s triangle, examples of non-standard leads and their application

Physiological ECG curve

ECG record description - action, frequency, rhythm, electric axis declination, description of individual parts of the curve

ECG diagnosis – disturbances of impulse origin (sinus arrest, nodal rhythm, idioventricular rhythm, extrasystoles, respiratory arrhythmia, nonrespiratory sinus arrhythmia, sinus tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular/wide complex tachycardia, atrial fibrillation and flutter, ventricular fibrillation and flutter, stimulated rhythm, pulsus alternans), disturbances of impulse transmission (sinoatrial blocks, atrioventricular blocks, bundle branch blocks, fascicular block, block in arborisation, preexcitation), angina pectoris, myocardial infarction (type, stage, localization), P mitrale, P pulmonale, pulmonary embolism, ventricular overload and hypertrophy, pericarditis, changes in ion levels, pulseless electrical activity, prolonged QT interval syndrome, syndrome of premature repolarization

Explanation of the basics of ECG changes in individual diagnoses, pathophysiology of these diseases and states

 

Measurement of blood pressure

Measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressure by mercury and digital tonometer

Principles and rules of blood pressure measurement

Normal and pathological resting values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure

 

Examination of body fitness and response of the cardiovascular system to physical load

Step test, Letunov’s test – procedure, principle, pathophysiological aspects of individual types of response

Changes of the heart rate and blood pressure in response to physical activity, stress, changes of posture, diving reflex, principle of these changes and reactions

 

Examination of hemorrhagic diatheses

Rumpel-Leede test - principle, execution, calculation of mean arterial pressure

Quick's test – principle and application

aPTT – principle and application

 

Examination of pulmonary ventilation

Definition and description of pulmonary ventilation

Spirometry and its principles

Basic measured parameters - definitions, normal values

Obstructive and restrictive disorders of lung ventilation - definitions, examples, spirometric findings

 

Electroencephalography

Methods of electrophysiological examination of the brain, ways and principles

Basic EEG rhythms - frequency, occurrence, relationship between frequency and amplitude

Evoked potentials

EEG diagnosis of the epilepsy

 

Stereotaxis

Definition, principles

Use in medicine and biomedical research

Stereotaxic apparatus

Orientation in the stereotaxic atlas

 

Anesthesia

Definition

Local anesthesia

- Definition

- Local anesthetics - pharmacology, examples of substances, mechanism of effect

- Methods of application of local anesthesia

- Factors influencing the effectiveness of local anesthesia

- Complications of local anesthesia

General anesthesia

- Methods of administration and their characteristics

- Examples of general anesthetics and their characteristics

- Pharmacokinetics of general anesthetics

- Stages of general anesthesia - definition, characteristics

- Complex management of general anesthesia

- Prepremedication, premedication, analgesia, vegetative stabilization, myorelaxation

- Myorelaxation -types of myorelaxants, their characteristics, complications and risks of administration

 

 

Vstupní požadavky - angličtina
Poslední úprava: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (24.09.2019)

Entrance conditions

For the practical exercises, the student must be equipped with his own lab-coat, must be theoretically prepared for the topic of the given class and is obliged to acquaint himself with the guideline for the given experiment or task (webpage of the Department of Pathophysiology: http://www.lfp.cuni.cz/patofyziologie, textbook Sobotka et al.: Pathophysiology – Laboratory Exercises). Students, who did not attend the class in time, will be not admitted to the class.

 

Podmínky zakončení předmětu - angličtina
Poslední úprava: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (24.09.2019)

Conditions for the credit

Winter and summer semester education is finalized with credits. Both credits are conditions for admission to the exam as well as for registration for the exam.

 

Conditions for the winter semester credit:

1. Active attending practical exercises – one absence per semester is allowed, the second absence can be tolerated by the teacher only in the case of student’s active approach to the classes (e.g. elaboration and presentation of a short lecture on a given topic, extraordinary knowledge).

2. Submitting of correctly elaborated protocols of all experiments and practical exercises verified by the teacher.

3. Passing a credit test. The credit test can be written only in appointed terms.

 

Conditions for the summer semester credit:

1. Active attending practical exercises – one absence per semester is allowed, the second absence can be tolerated by the teacher only in the case of student’s active approach to the classes (e.g. elaboration and presentation of a short lecture on a given topic, extraordinary knowledge).

2. Submitting of correctly elaborated protocols of all experiments and practical exercises verified by the teacher.

 

The conditions of the credits for students having an individual study plan, who enrolled pathophysiology for the second time, will be appointed individually in dependence on study duties passed in the previous academic year. These conditions will not exceed the range of above specified general duties.

 
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