velikost textu

Výuka cizích jazyků v pojetí waldorfské pedagogiky

Upozornění: Informace získané z popisných dat či souborů uložených v Repozitáři závěrečných prací nemohou být použity k výdělečným účelům nebo vydávány za studijní, vědeckou nebo jinou tvůrčí činnost jiné osoby než autora.
Název:
Výuka cizích jazyků v pojetí waldorfské pedagogiky
Název v angličtině:
Waldorf Approach to Teaching Foreign Languages
Typ:
Disertační práce
Autor:
Mgr. Kateřina Dvořáková
Školitel:
prof. PhDr. Vladimíra Spilková, CSc.
Oponenti:
prof. PhDr. Lumír Ries, CSc.
doc. PhDr. Lucie Betáková, M.A., Ph.D.
Id práce:
88768
Fakulta:
Pedagogická fakulta (PedF)
Pracoviště:
Oddělení pro vědeckou činnost (41-OVC)
Program studia:
Pedagogika (P7501)
Obor studia:
Pedagogika (XPGD)
Přidělovaný titul:
Ph.D.
Datum obhajoby:
22. 6. 2010
Výsledek obhajoby:
Prospěl/a
Jazyk práce:
Čeština
Abstrakt:
1. Ú V O D A C Í L E P R Á C E Tendence snižování věkové hranice pro zahájení výuky cizího jazyka se projevuje také v České republice. Zatímco ještě před několika lety se první cizí jazyk vyučoval od začátku druhého stupně základní školy, od roku 2007 je povinnou součástí primárního vzdělávání od třetí třídy. Řada škol však využívá možnosti ve svých vzdělávacích programech posílit cizojazyčnou výuku jejím zařazením už od první třídy. Důležitou roli na tomto poli hrají soukromé jazykové školy, které nabízejí kurzy pro děti už od předškolního věku, v případě metody Helen Doron dokonce od poněkud absurdních 3 měsíců. Nacházíme se tedy v období rostoucího zájmu o výuku cizích jazyků pro děti, saturovanou širokou nabídkou speciálních učebnic a výukových materiálů, chybí nám ovšem dlouhodobější praktické zkušenosti. V České republice nemáme v tomto oboru možnost navázat na žádnou tradici a teprve se začínáme učit, jak v cizích jazycích adekvátně přistupovat k dětem mladším deseti let. Ve své dizertační práci jsem se rozhodla zaměřit se na téma rané výuky cizích jazyků v pedagogickém směru, v němž má dlouhou tradici rozvíjenou v celosvětovém měřítku. Waldorfská pedagogika vyvinula metodu, jejímž prostřednictvím do svého učebního plánu od roku 1919 zařazuje dva cizí jazyky od první třídy. Tato rozsáhlá zkušenost waldorfské pedagogiky s výukou cizích jazyků u dětí byla jedním z rozhodujících podnětů pro orientaci mé doktorské práce. Dalšími podstatnými faktory byla možnost uplatnění znalostí a poznatků získaných tříletým studiem waldorfské pedagogiky, a především příležitost cizí jazyky touto metodou vyučovat jako významný předpoklad pro získání kvalitních výzkumných dat.
Abstract v angličtině:
12. SUMMARY This dissertation, titled The Waldorf Approach to Teaching Foreign Languages, deals with the methodology of foreign-language teaching used at Waldorf (Steiner) schools with a particular focus on young learners aged 6 to 10. Its main aim is to present and explore how foreign languages are taught in this pedagogical system with over ninety years of worldwide experience in incorporating two foreign languages into a primary curriculum from the first class onwards. The choice of the topic was determined by the following factors: 1) Even though Waldorf pedagogy has been the subject of numerous scholarly works in the Czech Republic since 1989, there are no studies specifically treating the theme of foreign-language teaching. 2) Books about the Waldorf approach to teaching foreign languages are largely written in German, and on the whole they are not easily accessible. In addition to this general lack of resources, the available materials contain mostly information about the content and expected outcomes for each school year and suggestions for concrete activities, but there is no systematic and thorough description of the methodological background to foreign-language teaching. 3) The Waldorf methodology deeply rooted in the humanistic tradition could be a stimulating and thought-provoking incentive for anyone working in the field of primary foreign language teaching. The theoretical part, containing six chapters, aspires to be a sort of a guide for the Waldorf foreign language teacher working in the primary classes. After a brief characterization of the so- called alternative methods and their contribution to the process of humanising foreign-language education in chapter two, attention is paid to some of the general philosophical, historical and pedagogical principles of Waldorf pedagogy. The third chapter also examines the recent worldwide developments as well as the current situation in the Czech Republic. The anthroposophical perception of language, its practical application in the form of eurythmy and creative speech, and the approach to teaching the mother tongue in the early school years are dealt with in chapter four. Chapter five describes the aims and conditions of effective foreignlanguage teaching. Furthermore, it presents a detailed account of the methodological approach for classes one to six, including the prominent developmental characteristics of pupils and the corresponding methods, techniques, possible activities and expected outcomes. Some of the specific features of the Waldorf approach to foreign language teaching are analyzed in chapter six. Finally, the last of the theoretical chapters touches upon several practical issues related to the work of a foreign language teacher at the Steiner school. The main empirical objective of this dissertation is to explore selected aspects of the Waldorf methodology as applied to foreign-language teaching. The research project is designed as a qualitative study. Data is collected by means of extensive participatory observation (including my own teaching in classes one to four), in- depth interviews with expert teachers and an analysis of documents, such as video recordings and student production. After three and a half years of field work, the following research questions were identified: 1) How are foreign languages actually taught in the primary years? 2) When and how are reading and writing skills introduced? 3) Which learning strategies can be developed with primary learners? 4) How do Waldorf teachers understand and put into practice the aims of foreignlanguage education? 5) How do Waldorf teachers approach the issue of textbooks and teaching materials? 6) What are the Waldorf teachers’ opinions about the way foreign languages are taught at the Steiner schools and about the pupils’ ability to learn foreign languages? In answering the first question, two lessons of German in class one and three are described and analyzed. Due to the optimum qualifications of the teacher, we can see plenty of examples typical of the Waldorf approach, including the lesson structure and atmosphere, choral work, use of the target language for conducting the lesson and artistic elements. By presenting the involvement of the third class in a German and English theatre project it is shown how drama education is integrated into foreign language lessons. In the chapter dedicated to the introduction and teaching of literacy skills, the approaches of different teachers from various schools are compared and the issue of moving from purely aural-oral teaching to introducing reading and writing is explored. The research shows that even though literacy skills are to be introduced in class four according to the Waldorf curriculum, in a number of schools it is initiated one year earlier. The advantages and disadvantages of this step as well as concrete techniques and materials for developing literacy skills are also discussed. The third research question focuses on learning strategies, both those spontaneously used by the pupils during lessons as well as those introduced by the teacher to enhance the pupils’ learning. There are examples of strategy use from pupils (e.g. spontaneous imitation of the teacher, reliance on rhythm, guessing the meaning of unknown words, hypothesizing, comparing different languages, etc.) and a case study of a talented language learner who was observed to be using a large number of strategies over a period of three and a half years. Moreover, it is demonstrated that it is undoubtedly beneficial and relatively simple for teachers to promote the use and development of various strategies in foreign-language lessons with young learners. The answers to research questions four to six are largely based on data obtained from interviews with five expert teachers (four Czech and one German) and supplemented by findings from observations. The teachers reveal how they perceive and implement the goals for foreign language teaching set by Rudolf Steiner, what materials they use in their lessons, and express their opinions about the pros and cons of the absence of textbooks. Finally, they discuss their views on the general strengths and weaknesses of the Waldorf approach. In conclusion, I attempted to summarize the main distinctive features of the Waldorf approach to teaching foreign languages at primary level and to outline the strenghts and potential weaknesses of its methodology.
Dokumenty
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Stáhnout Text práce Mgr. Kateřina Dvořáková 879 kB
Stáhnout Abstrakt v českém jazyce Mgr. Kateřina Dvořáková 39 kB
Stáhnout Abstrakt anglicky Mgr. Kateřina Dvořáková 37 kB
Stáhnout Posudek vedoucího 445 kB
Stáhnout Posudek oponenta prof. PhDr. Lumír Ries, CSc. 71 kB
Stáhnout Posudek oponenta doc. PhDr. Lucie Betáková, M.A., Ph.D. 121 kB