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Theory Construction - JSM718
Anglický název: Theory Construction
Český název: .
Zajišťuje: Katedra veřejné a sociální politiky (23-KVSP)
Fakulta: Fakulta sociálních věd
Platnost: od 2021
Semestr: letní
E-Kredity: 6
Způsob provedení zkoušky: letní s.:
Rozsah, examinace: letní s.:2/0, KZ [HT]
Počet míst: neurčen / neurčen (25)
Minimální obsazenost: 8
4EU+: ne
Virtuální mobilita / počet míst pro virtuální mobilitu: ne
Stav předmětu: nevyučován
Jazyk výuky: angličtina
Způsob výuky: prezenční
Způsob výuky: prezenční
Poznámka: předmět je možno zapsat mimo plán
povolen pro zápis po webu
Garant: Dina Abdelhafez, B.Sc., M.A., Ph.D.
Třída: Courses for incoming students
Termíny zkoušek   Rozvrh   Nástěnka   
Anotace - angličtina
Poslední úprava: PhDr. Petr Bednařík, Ph.D. (16.02.2020)
This course aims to teach elementary knowledge and practical skills for conceptualizing social science inquiry. The emphasis throughout the course is on creative and disciplined theorizing as a practical skill. Therefore, at the end of the course, the students should be familiar with theoretical choices to conduct their public policy research, while possessing necessary skills for creative, independent, and disciplined theorizing. Students will have opportunity to discuss their phenomenon understudied during the seminar sessions. Through lectures and working seminars will encouraged students to reflect on relevant theory choices corresponding with particular research designs.

The first part of the course introduces essential aspects of theorizing, such as thinking sociologically, the specificity of social-scientific inquiries and the application of creative heuristics.

The second part treats essential aspects of the research process, such as developing research questions, a research design, conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement both in (post-)positivist and interpretive approaches. It also discusses how social scientists deal with causation and explanation.

In the third part of the course, we treat some typical recurring problems in public policy research:

(1) Varying levels of sociological analysis (micro, meso & macro) and (2) Problems of comparative research in public and social policy.
Literatura - angličtina
Poslední úprava: PhDr. Petr Bednařík, Ph.D. (12.08.2020)

Reading :

Abott, A. (2004) Methods of Discovery. Heuristics for the Social Sciences, New York: Norton, pp. 113-146.  

Adams, D. (2004). Usable knowledge in public policy. Australian Journal of Public Administration, 63(1).

Belloni, M. (2016). “Refugees as gamblers: Eritreans seeking to migrate through Italy.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies , 14(1).

Collyer, M. (2005). “When do social networks fail to explain migration? Accounting for the movement of Algerian asylum-seekers to the UK.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(4).

Elster, J. (2007) Explaining Social Behavior. More Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Emirbayer, M. & Desmond, M. (2012) Race and reflexivity, Ethnic and Racial Studies 35:4, 574-599

Firebaugh, G. (2008) Seven Rules for Social Research, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Goffman, A. (2014) On the run. Fugitive life in an American city. Chicago: Chicago University Press, ppvii-8.

Goroff, Norman (1973) "Ideology, Sociological Theories, and Public Policy,"The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 1 : Iss. 1 , Retrieved from http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol1/iss1/14

Hooghe, M., Trappers, A., Meuleman, B., & Reeskens, T. (2008). “Migration to European countries: A structural explanation of patterns, 1980–2004.” International Migration Review, 42(2).

Charmaz, K. (2014) Constructing grounded theory (2nd edition). London: Sage Publications

Jaccard, J. & Jacoby, J. (2010) Theory Construction and Model-Building Skills. A practical guide for social scientists. New York: The Guilford Press.

Landman, T. (2003) Issues and Methods in Comparative Politics, London: Routledge, pp. 4-11, 23-59.

Mills, C.W. (1959), The sociological imagination.

Pettigrew, Th. (1996) How to Think like a Social Scientist, New York: Longman.

Ragin, C, Amoroso, L (2010) Constructing Social Research. The Unity and Diversity of Method (2nd edition), Pine Forge Press, pp. 135-161.

Rueschemeyer, D. (2009) Usable Theory. Analytic tools for Social and Political Research, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp.152-166; 243-264.

Sabatier, P. A. (1991). Toward better theories of the policy processPS: Political Science & Politics24(2)

Schwartz-Shea, P. & Yanow, D. (2012) Interpretive research design. Concepts and processes. New York: Routledge,

Swedberg, R. (2014), The art of social theory, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Wimmer A. (1997) Explaining xenophobia and racism: A critical review of current research approaches, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 20:1, 17-41.

Wimmer, A. (2015 ), Race-centrism: a critique and a research agenda, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 38 (13), 2186–2205.

 

Sylabus - angličtina
Poslední úprava: Bc. Aneta Csikósová, DiS. (26.01.2022)

Theory Construction Syllabus Basic Information Course Title Theory Construction Semester Summer 2022 Guarantors Pavol Frič, Doc. PhDr. Teachers Dina Abdelhafez, Ph.D. Hours per week, examination Once per week (80 minute), Research Paper Credits 6 Credits (1 credit= 3- working hours) Place Online Time Tuesday: 12:30 to 13:50 Moodle Contact 73198435 @fsv.cuni.cz Consultations Course Description ‘Theory Construction’ explores the nature of theorizing in the social sciences. It focuses on some of the main building blocks in social inquiry, such as concepts, research questions, and causal explanations. This course is designed to help students learn how to construct the theory and concepts for their research papers and to be able to search for some public policy problem and prepare, design and select public policy theories or program to analyze and study the problem. This course aims to teach elementary knowledge and practical skills for conceptualizing social science inquiry. The emphasis throughout the course is not on theories themselves, but on creative and disciplined theorizing as a practical skill. Therefore, at the end of the course, the students should be familiar with theoretical choices and debates to conduct social scientific and public policy scientific research, while possessing necessary skills for creative, independent, and disciplined theorizing. Students will have opportunity to discuss their phenomenon understudied during the seminar sessions. Through lectures, working seminars and individual assignments, you are encouraged to reflect on social scientific approaches to reality and different choices entailed in research design. The first part of the course introduces essential aspects of theorizing, such as thinking sociologically, the specificity of social-scientific inquiries and the application of creative heuristics. The second part treats essential aspects of the research process, such as developing research questions, a research design, conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement both in (post-)positivist and interpretive approaches. It also discusses how social scientists deal with causation and explanation. Version: January 26, 2022 In the third part of the course, we treat some typical recurring problems in public policy research: (1) Varying levels of sociological analysis (micro, meso & macro) and (2) Problems of comparative research in public and social policy. Learning Objectives and Outcomes • Students will understand the general features of scientific research and methodology and are familiar with some basic concepts of the epistemology and philosophy of social sciences • Students will have a good understanding of the specificity of sociological and social science research and the interconnectedness within different research goals, research strategies and paradigms. Students will be able to illustrate the sociological and public policy approaches and different research goals and strategies, using a given or selfchosen societal phenomenon • Students will have a good understanding of the different choices and issues at stake in the research process (finding a research question, conceptualization, operationalization, etc.) and they will be able to apply this understanding in small research assignments during the semester. • Students will have a good understanding of essential issues at stake in the description as well as explanation of social life. Students will be able to distinguish descriptive and causal arguments. • Students will know some general heuristics and specific heuristics of the social sciences and can use them to turn a vague interest into their research question. • Students will understand the various possibilities and problems involved in comparative research • Students will be able to distinguish the main levels of analysis in the social sciences and understand the main problems when developing explanations across different levels of analysis • Students will know how to use social-scientific sources to find a research problem and develop social-scientific arguments. Students will be able to report orally and written on this phenomenon understudied. • Final competences After following this course, you should obtain the following competences. • Component • Knowledge & insight• Skills • Part I • Understanding of the specificity of social scientific theories. • Understanding of the different phases in the process of researching, and the different roles of theory therein. • Think sociologically about social phenomena. • Apply heuristics to engage in creative, disciplined and independent theorizing. • Part II • Understanding the • Articulate and Version: January 26, 2022 differences between research processes, designs and strategies in postpositivist and interpretivist approaches. • Knowledge of the primary goals of social scientific inquiry. • Understanding the nature of descriptive and causal arguments in the social sciences. illustrate sociological approaches to a given problem or question. • Develop suitable research questions, hypotheses and concepts. • List, compare and substantiate the most suitable research strategies for a certain research goal. • Apply heuristics to formulate descriptive and causal arguments. • Part III • Knowledge of typical problems in sociological research and theory construction. • Clarify the main conceptual choices and problems in a given research project or article. • Evaluate critically the levels of analysis and causal paths in existing research, while providing alternative examples. General • Knowledge of basic terminology to draw up and report scientific research: research questions, hypotheses, explanatory models, analytical frames, etc. • Basic insight in how to choose position in (theoretical) debates and deal with problems and conflicts in design of social scientific research. Lectures and Course Material Throughout the first semester there will be weekly lectures for (80 minutes) reviewing and explaining the reading material. Powerpoint presentations of the lectures will be distributed on Moodle. You are expected to read the texts related to the theme of the class in advance. Individual assignments will be explained in the corresponding lectures. After each assignment, you will receive feedback in class. In preparation of each assignment a working seminar will be organized in which we review the different steps involved in theorizing and applying heuristics. Version: January 26, 2022 Exam & Assignments The assessment of this course consists of two parts: 1. A research paper, testing knowledge and understanding of course contents and its implementation in a research paper, providing 55% of the final grade. 2. Throughout the semester, students are required to complete three individual assignments, assessing competences and skills. These assignments make up 45% of the final grade. Instructions for each assignment will be made available via Moodle. Assignment one This assignment will cover part one of the course Instructions of Assignment one a. Start with choosing a social phenomenon, introduce it briefly and reflect on why it interests you (drawing on Swedberg, chapter 2). You can draw on personal experiences, stories, media reports, … b. Imagine you were to conduct research on that phenomenon. Explain how you would engage in early “social observation,” as described by Swedberg (chapter 2). What sort of preliminary data do you try to find? Where do you look or listen? c. Theorize. Try to assemble relevant ideas, statistics, background, descriptions, related phenomena, explanations, etc. through free association. Theorize wildly! Present the results of this theorization in two parts: Give a summary of this free association process. Diagrams, drawings, etc. of this brainstorm session may be included at the end of your paper, as an appendix. Apply at least three of the demonstrated heuristics (e.g. framing by case/aspect, analysing latent functions, etc.) during your process of free association. Explain the heuristics, how you apply these, and to which insights they lead. The more alternative approaches, explanations, etc. you can generate in relation to your phenomenon, the better. There are no right or wrong answers, and this step will not be graded as such. We will, however, take into account whether the heuristics were applied correctly and how well you explain what you are doing. d. Further reflect on your social phenomenon and address the following topics: Explain what is specifically sociological about your theorizations and the future research you suggest (see texts by Swedberg & Mills). Version: January 26, 2022 Explain why future research might demonstrate that it is a socially significant phenomenon (as described by Ragin & Amoroso). Submit of the assignment before the deadline in electronic format, via Moodle after 3 weeks from discussion. Follow the links under ‘Assignments.’ The intended length of the assignment is 1800 to 2300 words. But, as always: quality above quantity. You are advised to write in English. Make sure your name, course title and the title of the assignment are clearly visible on the first page. If you are unsure of how to write, take a look at the ‘Guidelines on Writing an Academic Paper,’ available from Moodle. Evaluation of Assignment one While grading this assignment will be out of 10, we take into consideration the following criteria: • The degree to which the different heuristics are used creatively and correctly. • The degree of originality of the chosen research interest and the elements that you • eventually select from the first, creative step. • How well you link your approach to the texts in the reader. • Formal requirements (e.g. length & structure of the paper, use of scientific language, • clarity of reasoning, etc.). Assignment Two Instructions of Assignment two (1) Choose a social phenomenon. We recommend you take the same phenomenon as for the first assignment, but doing so is not compulsory. If you choose a new phenomenon, you first need to go through the same steps of creative theorizing. You do not need to explain or demonstrate this process (max. 250 words). (2) Develop two research designs: one positivist and one interpretive (max. 1200 words each). For each research design, you should address the following topics: a. A reflection on the research process. How do literature, data collection and data analysis fit together? In which order will you use them? We recommend that you use the terms and building blocks described in the slides and the texts (e.g. deduction, induction, abduction, hermeneutic circle, role of theory, concepts, hypotheses & research topics, …). Be sure to use them correctly, explaining what they mean in the specific context of the approach that you are developing. b. The methods you will use, thereby explaining why these methods are adequate to the overall research design. Version: January 26, 2022 c. Formulate a research question for each approach. For the (post-)positive research design, this probably includes hypotheses and a (simple) model. Explain how these fulfil the functions and/or characteristics of a good hypothesis. For the interpretive research design, you need to describe why the preliminary research question is suggestive enough to guide your research and flexible enough to adapt to the findings from the field throughout the research. It is recommended that you give examples as to how you might need to adapt you research question. d. For each research design, describe at least one research goal as described by Ragin and Amoroso, and explain why this fits well with those research designs. In this assignment, make sure to emphasize the contrasts between the two research designs. Especially with regards to the research question & goal, you should reflect on the differences between the two approaches. Where appropriate, you can take inspiration from existing literature and theory. Make sure to cite correctly. Throughout the assignment, you can always refer to what you have learned in other courses (with correct citations where needed). Submit of the assignment before the deadline in electronic format, via Moodle. Follow the links under ‘Assignments.’ The intended length of the assignment is 1800 to 2550 words. It is graded out of 20. But, as always: quality above quantity. You are advised to write in English. Make sure your name, course title and the title of the assignment are clearly visible on the first page. If you are unsure of how to write, take a look at the ‘Guidelines on Writing an Academic Paper,’ available from Moodle. Evaluation of Assignment two While grading this assignment, we take into consideration the following criteria: • Correct use of relevant concepts & theories introduced during class and in the reader. • Degree in which you demonstrate understanding of differences and similarities of the various research goals and approaches. • The research questions and how well they fit the corresponding approach. • Formal requirements (e.g., use of scientific language, respecting the deadline, etc.). Assignment Three You briefly describe your social phenomenon and choose between either a (deductive) postpositivist or an (abductive) interpretive approach. Make use of academic articles, books or book chapters to make your reflections more concrete and convincing. We recommend you to use at least three sources. We advise you to limit your essay to 2300 words, but you can use more words if you think that that is necessary. As always: quality over quantity. The assignment will be graded out of 15. Further instructions for the assignment depend upon your choice of approach: Version: January 26, 2022 A. If you choose for the post-positivist approach, follow a two-step approach: 1. Description • Define the key concepts in your research question by using the academic or policybased literature. • Engage in instantiation (see Jaccard & Jacoby) by turning your abstract concept(s) into a series of dimensions and indicators (similar to the example of “Stigma” in the course). • Discuss the validity and reliability of your indicators. This includes a reflection on potential bias. • Where relevant, reflect about a particular typology you might use, adapt or develop from your data analysis. 2. Causal explanations • In the previous assignment you have developed a research question and several hypotheses. In this assignment you further develop your model by making it more detailed, including different types of causal relationships (mediating, moderating, bidirectional, turning direct into indirect relationships,…). Describe each of the steps you take when developing your model (see Jaccard & Jacoby). • Support your decisions on whether or not to include particular variables by drawing on the academic literature on your phenomenon. You do not need to provide a comprehensive literature review, but you have to show how your research question, hypotheses and model emerges from these references. Support your hypotheses, and indicate how you support them (i.e. from below, above or laterally, see Elster). Explain why you think these different variables (may not) play a role. Be explicit about the causal mechanisms that you assume to be at work (see Jaccard & Jacoby’s example of the influence an adolescent’s relationship with his/her mother has on drug use). • When outlining your model, make sure you use the correct visual representation forms as indicated in the course and the reader (Jaccard & Jacoby). These include, among other things: straight arrows for causal relations and curving two-way arrows for correlations. • Identify any causal attribution errors that lay people might tend to make. You can use media reports, anecdotes or hypothetical errors. • Explain how your model helps to explain a social phenomenon. Be explicit: what is the variance it addresses? For which other variables do you need to control? B. If you choose the interpretive approach. This assignment is an exercise in reflexivity. You will write a research plan, in which you reflect about potential pitfalls and opportunities. Substantiate how you will deal with these Version: January 26, 2022 issues by drawing on the literature throughout your assignment. There are two types of literature we recommend you to draw upon: • Literature that deals explicitly with qualitative research methods and try to relate this to your phenomenon. You can have a look at: a) journals likes Qualitative Inquiry and International Journal for Qualitative Methods; b) more specialised journals like Cultural Sociology and Journal of Refugee Studies; and c) you can consult readers on methods. You can also make use of the appendix to Alice Goffman’s On the Run, which you can find on Moodle. • Literature that is related to your research topic (e.g. if your topic is refugees’ experience, look for interpretive research articles on refugees’ experience, or those of immigrants or newcomers more generally). In this assignment you will reflect upon: • Entering the field. Describe where, when and how will you look for relevant. How, when and where will you approach respondents? How will you try to acquire formal and social access? How will you develop a trust relationship with your participants? • Researcher positionality and researcher roles. Reflect on the potential power relations that might emerge between you and your respondents. What impact might your personal (demographic and social) background and characteristics have on your relationship with correspondents? What may be your impact on the field (e.g. changing interactions, actual consequences for the people you conduct your research with)? How does the research design (not) fit with your personal competences. Be honest about your weaknesses and how you can (not) address them. • Concepts. Which existing concepts might you use as sensitizing concepts? If you have prior knowledge of your phenomenon, try to think about emic (experience-near) concepts that might emerge from words or expressions your respondents already use in daily conversations. • How will you keep notes? Where and when? Will this have an impact on your observations? Choosing along the continuum of participation and observation? • Building up evidence. What different types of data do you think will be relevant for your research (which subject, objects, places, times, practices, conversations,…)? How are you going to expose yourself to those data? How do these elements relate to your phenomenon? Most importantly, reflect about how you will look for common perspectives across a variety of sources. • Explaining: where will you look for explanations? Which individual intentions and contextual explanations might emerge? Version: January 26, 2022 Course Schedule Part I: Theorizing in the social sciences Lecture 1 (1 Feb. 2022) Introduction to the course and How to write a good research paper? And: theorizing in the social sciences ▪ structure of the paper ▪ Searching for academic papers ▪ Paraphrasing and proofreading ▪ Citation and plagiarism ▪ Theory, theorizing and the sociological imagination ▪ The nature of social-scientific inquiry ▪ Overview of the course Reading material: • Mills, C.W. (1959), The sociological imagination, pp. 5-11. • Swedberg, R. (2014), The art of social theory, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 16-28 & pp168- 180. • Ragin, C. and L. Amoroso, L. (2010) Constructing Social Research. The Unity and Diversity of Method (2nd edition), Pine Forge Press, pp. 24-32. Lecture 2 (8 Feb. 2022) Creative theorizing I: the contexts of discovery ▪ Distinction between contexts of discovery and contexts of appraisal ▪ Heuristics for creative theorizing • Reading Material: • Swedberg, R. (2014), The art of social theory, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 16-51 & pp168- 180. • Gerring, J. (2012) Social Science Methodology. A Unified Framework , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 27-57. • Abbott, A. (2004) Methods of Discovery. Heuristics for the Social Sciences, New York: Norton, pp. 113- 146. • Firebaugh, G. (2008) Seven Rules for Social Research, Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 8-13. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/323883484_Seven_Rules_for_Social_Research • Ragin, C. and Amoroso, L (2010) Constructing Social Research. The Unity and Diversity of Method (2nd edition), Pine Forge Press, pp. 63-68. Lecture 3 (15 Feb. 2022) Creative theorising II: working seminar I ▪ The case of depression ▪ Interactive seminar Version: January 26, 2022 ▪ Assignment One Discussion deadline 30 October Reading Material: • Greenberg, G., Miller, J., Mohr, L., & Vladeck, B. (1977). Developing Public Policy Theory: Perspectives from Empirical Research. The American Political Science Review, 71(4), 1532-1543. doi:10.2307/1961494 • Part II: Approaches in theorizing Lecture 4 (22 Feb. 2022) Research paradigms, design, and processes 1. What are paradigms? 2. Paradigms and scientific innovation (background reading) 3. Paradigmatic debates in the social sciences 4. Research Design 5. Research Process: (Post-)positivist and interpretive approaches Reading Material: • Abbott, A. (2004) Methods of Discovery. Heuristics for the Social Sciences, New York: Norton, pp. 43- 53. • Schwartz-Shea, P. & Yanow, D. (2012) Interpretive research design. Concepts and processes. New York: Routledge, pp24-45. • Jaccard, J. & Jacoby, J. (2010) Theory Construction and Model-Building Skills. A practical guide for social scientists. New York: The Guilford Press, pp28-34. Lecture 5 (1 March 2022) Research Question and Research Goal ▪ Developing a research question ▪ Seven Research Goals ▪ Developing Research Question and Research goals ▪ The (post-)positivist approach I: Description and conceptualization ▪ Submission of Assignment One Reading Material: • Ragin, C. and Amoroso, L (2010) Constructing Social Research. The Unity and Diversity of Method (2nd edition), Pine Forge Press, pp. 33-56. • Schwartz-Shea, P. & Yanow, D. (2012) Interpretive research design. Concepts and processes. New York: Routledge, pp24-45. Lecture 6 (8 March 2022) Version: January 26, 2022 The (post-)positivist approach I: description, measuring and conceptualization. ▪ Indicators and typologies ▪ Measuring ▪ Conceptualizing ▪ Working Seminar II ▪ Discussion Assignment Two Deadline 25 November Reading Material: ■ Hooghe, M., Trappers, A., Meuleman, B., & Reeskens, T. (2008). “Migration to European countries: A structural explanation of patterns, 1980–2004.” International Migration Review, 42(2), 476-504. ■ Collyer, M. (2005). “When do social networks fail to explain migration? Accounting for the movement of Algerian asylum-seekers to the UK.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 31(4), 699-718. ■ Belloni, M. (2016). “Refugees as gamblers: Eritreans seeking to migrate through Italy.” Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 14(1), 104-119. • Bryman (2005), Social research methods, p65-70. Lecture 7 (15 March 2022) The post-positivist approach II: Causal explanations ▪ The complex notion of ‘causation’ ▪ Different explanatory models ▪ Causal analysis Reading Material: • Elster, J. (2007) Explaining Social Behavior. More Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p.7-31. Lecture 8 (22 March 2022) The post-positivist approach II: Causal Models • Jaccard, J. & Jacoby, J. (2010) Theory Construction and Model-Building Skills. New York: The Guilford Press, p.137-176 Lecture 9 (29 March 2022) The interpretive approach ▪ Access to the field ▪ Positionality and dilemmas for the observer ▪ Context and causality ▪ Evidence in interpretative research ▪ Reflexivity Version: January 26, 2022 Reading Material: • Schwartz-Shea, P. & Yanow, D. (2012) Interpretive research design. Concepts and processes. New York: Routledge, pp45-54 (ch. 3). • Schwartz-Shea, P. & Yanow, D. (2012) Interpretive research design. Concepts and processes. New York: Routledge, pp78-90 (ch 5). • Schwartz-Shea, P. & Yanow, D. (2012) Interpretive research design. Concepts and processes. New York: Routledge, pp91-114 (ch 6). Lecture 10 (5 April 2022) Levels of analysis in the social sciences (I) ▪ Specific properties of micro, meso, and macro levels ▪ Problems and confusion of micro and macro levels ▪ Different causal paths: bottom-up and top-down • Part III: Issues in theory construction Lecture 11 (12 April 2022) Comparative research: potentials and problems ▪ Why compare? ▪ Different types of comparison ▪ The use of case-studies ▪ Case selection and core problems with comparison (equivalence) Reading Material: • Ragin, C, Amoroso, L (2010) Constructing Social Research. The Unity and Diversity of Method (2nd edition), Pine Forge Press, pp. 135-161. Lecture 12 (19 April 2022) Research Proposal/Thesis Structure • Research Design in Political Science by Dimiter Toshkov https://books.google.cz/books/about/Research_Design_in_Political_Science.html?id=5KLhjgEACAAJ&r edir_esc=y • Developing Effective Research Proposals, Punch https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/developing-effectiveresearch-proposals/book245416 • The Craft of Research https://is.cuni.cz/studium/predmety/index.php?do=download&did=53831&kod=JMM003 • Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector's Filed Guide • https://www.fhi360.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/Qualitative%20Research%20Methods%

 
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