PředmětyPředměty(verze: 837)
Předmět, akademický rok 2018/2019
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Biologie a genetika I - EA0902003
Anglický název: Biology and Genetics I
Zajišťuje: Ústav biologie (14-30)
Fakulta: Lékařská fakulta v Plzni
Platnost: od 2017
Semestr: letní
Body: 3
E-Kredity: 3
Způsob provedení zkoušky: letní s.:
Rozsah, examinace: letní s.:2/2 Z [hodiny/týden]
Počet míst: neomezen / neomezen (neurčen)
Minimální obsazenost: neomezen
Stav předmětu: vyučován
Jazyk výuky: angličtina
Způsob výuky: prezenční
Úroveň:  
Garant: doc. RNDr. Martin Pešta, Ph.D.
doc. MUDr. Marie Ludvíková, Ph.D.
Vyučující: RNDr. Pavel Dvořák, Ph.D.
doc. MUDr. Marie Ludvíková, Ph.D.
Kategorizace předmětu: Lékařství > Teoretické předměty
Je korekvizitou pro: EA0904011, EA0903010
Anotace - angličtina
Poslední úprava: Zdenka Křížková (14.11.2017)
The aim of the course of Biology and Genetics is to provide the students with the essential knowledge on cellular and molecular biology and genetics. The accent is put on the pathobiological processes and human biological and genetic variations as they relate to health and disease, causes and inheritance of genetic disorders and the application of the basic principles of biology and genetics to medicine and to the study of subsequent subjects in the Dentistry study program.
Podmínky zakončení předmětu - angličtina
Poslední úprava: Zdenka Křížková (22.05.2018)

Completing a subject:

  • Sommer and winter semester credits (each credit test is limited by one regular and two re-credit terms) obtained by the end of  the examination period

  • Final exam passed till the 15th of September 2018 (Detailed information about the final exam: See  …)

Winter semester credit:

  • Regular attendance at practical training

  • All credit tests passed

  • According to the teacher's requirements: lab protocols written and handed over to the teacher till the deadline

Sommer semester credit:

  • Regular attendance at practical training

  • All credit tests passed

  • According to the teacher's requirements: Solved tasks in the manual (Each student is due to print this manual from intranet pdf-file at the beginning of the semester)

Information for students with learning disabilities, etc.: inform your teachers at the beginning of the year/semester; later requirements (during the day of test/exam) cannot be taken into account

Literatura - angličtina
Poslední úprava: Zdenka Křížková (14.11.2017)

Compulsory:

1. Chandar N, Viselli S: Cell and Molecular Biology. Lippincott Williams&Wilkins, 2010
2. Reischig J. and Korabečná M.: General biology laboratory manual. Volume I. Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen; Pilsen; 2002
3. Reischig J. and Korabečná M.: General biology laboratory manual. Volume II. Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen; Pilsen; 1998

Recommended:

1. Alberts B, Bray D: Essential Cell Biology: An Introduction to the Molecular Biology of the cell. Garland Publishing Inc US
2. Cagle P.T., Allen T.C.: Basic Concepts of Molecular Pathology. Springer 2009
3. Norman R.I., Lodwick D.: Flesh and Bones of Medical Cell Biology, Mosby Elsevier, 2007
4. Goodman S. R. Medical Cell Biology. Third edition. Elservier; 2008

Požadavky ke zkoušce - angličtina
Poslední úprava: Zdenka Křížková (22.05.2018)

Final Exam – Biology

  • Conditions: winter and summer credits

  • Student has to register (after obtaining both credits) in SIS for the final exam

  • Registered students can unsubscribe from this exam till the deadline specified in SIS for every term; In case of unexpected serious reasons (after this deadline) students are allowed to send their explanation and apologize for that term by e-mail to their teacher or examiner and department secretary: Mrs. Zdenka Křížková: Zdenka.Krizkova@lfp.cuni.cz or Vaclava.cerna@lfp.cuni.cz, before the exams starts.

  • In case the student does not appear and does not apology from his term before the exam starts, the term fails

  • Final exam consists of:

    • Written part – TEST (students need their own calculator)

    • Oral part including questions from biology and genetics

  • Written part of the test takes place at the room/department specified in SIS at the term registered in SIS; the oral part takes place at the Department of Biology (unless otherwise specified) and in some cases (e.g. high number of students) can be postponed to the following day

  • Final exam result includes both written and oral parts

  • Syllabus (List of potential questions) is available on: https://ustav-biologie-lf-uk-v-plzni.webnode.cz/vyuka/syllaby/

Sylabus - angličtina
Poslední úprava: Zdenka Křížková (14.11.2017)

Syllabus of Lectures on Biology

1. Introduction to biology. General characteristics of biological systems. Essential attributes of life. Hierarchy and classification of living systems. Non-cellular and cellular forms of life. Biology and genetics of viruses. Reproduction of viruses. Viroids. Virusoids. Prions.

2. Cell theory and its history. Classification of cellular organisms: prokaryots and eukaryots. Domains of living cellular systems: bacteria, archea, eukaryots. Characteristics of prokaryotic cells. Comparison of plant and animal cells. Extracellular matrix. Intercellular junctions.

3. Chemical composition of cells. Essential and traces elements, inorganic compounds, organic compounds, biopolymers. Lipids. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Structure and function of proteins. Protein domains. Chaperons, proteosom. Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA – types).

4. Membrane principle of cells. Structure, location and function of biomembranes. Plasma membrane. Endomembranes. Transport across membranes (active and passive transport; membrane transport proteins and their functions; natrium-potassium pump; ion channels). Endocytosis and exocytosis.

5. Cytoskeleton. Microtubules. Intermediary filaments. Microfilaments (actin fibers). Functio of cytoskeleton. Cell movement (flagella, cilia, molecular motors, muscle contraction). Mechanisms of movement on cellular and subcellular levels. Cellular membrane and nuclear skeleton.

6. Intracellular compartments and transport. Membrane organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, peroxisomes, mitochondrias). Protein sorting – mechanisms of transport of proteins into organelles. Vesicular transport. Secretory and endocytic pathways.

7. Memory system of cell. Genetic and epigenetic information. Structure of human genome. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Epigenetics and its mechanisms.

8. Gene expression. Transcription. Posttranscriptional modifications. Translation. Biogenesis of ribosomes. Cotranslational and posttranslational modification of polypeptides. Genetic code and its characteristics.

9. Regulation of gene expression. Overview: steps of eukaryotic gene regulation. Promotor and iniciation of transcription. Epigenetic regulatory function. MicroRNA and RNA interference. Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene regulation. Operon theory.

10. Cell divison. Cell cycle and its regulation. Phases of cell cycle. Positive and negative regulation of cell cycle. Checkpoints and cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclins, Cdk-kinases, Cdk inhibitors, Rb protein, p53 etc.).

11. DNA replication. Mechanism of replication. Leading and lagging strands. Okazaki fragments. DNA replication fork. Replication enzymes. Primers for DNA synthesis. DNA proofreading and repair. DNA amplification: DNA cloning, polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

12. Mitosis. Phases of mitosis. Mechanisms of mitotic spindle assembly and function. Cytokinesis (plant and animal cells). Meiosis. Phases of meiosis. Meiotic nondisjunction.

13. Cellular stress. Cellular stress responses: cell survival and cell death. Reversible and irrevesible cell injury. Adaptation. Cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia. Cellular aging.

14. Cell death. Apoptosis – programmed cell death. Mechanism of apoptosis and cellular morphological changes during apoptosis. Necrosis. Causes of necrosis. Microscopic nuclear and cytoplasmic changes in necrotic cells

15. General principles of cell communication. Signal molecules. Cell-surface and intracellular signal receptors. G-protein-linked receptors. Enzyme-linked receptors. Signal-transduction proteins. Signal-transduction pathways.

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Syllabus of Practicals on Biology
Topics: 2nd semester - BIOLOGY

1. Introduction into optical microscopy
Basic composition of an optical microscope; Magnification and resolving power; Estimation of real dimensions of objects; Fluorescent microscopy

2. Prokaryotic cells
Basic functional organization of prokaryotic cells; Basic classification of bacteria (pathogens); Bacterial cell wall; Gram reaction; Bacteria and cyanobacteria, examples, observation

3. Eukaryotic cells
Basic functional organization of eukaryotic cells (focus on animal and plant cells); Comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

4. Comparing the structure of plant and animal cells
Observation of permanent preparations of various human cells and tissues; Native preparations of plant cells; Plant tissues – parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma; Comparative analysis of plant and animal cells; Cell wall; Comparative analysis of plant and prokaryotic cell walls.

5. Ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells
Seminar – electron microscopy and resolving ultrastructure of eukaryotic cells. Basic membrane structures (nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, vesicles, mitochondria, chloroplasts) and non-membrane structures (ribosomes, nucleolus, cell wall) including cytoskeleton (microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments); Vesicle transport; Molecular motors

6. Cell cycle and mitosis
Cell cycle (G1, S, G2, M), DNA replication, and somatic cell division; Mitosis and its phases; Mitotic spindle structure; Mitotic index; Chromatin structure; Cells in different mitotic phases – slides.

7. Meiosis
Production of gametes – meiosis and gametogenesis; Both meiotic divisions (I and II) with focus on the first division; First meiotic prophase (leptotene, zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis; Recombination; Comparison of meiosis and mitosis; Cells in different phases of meiotic division - slides

8. Cytogenetics
Chromosomes – structure and classification; human karyotype, banding techniques; Numerical chromosomal aberrations (polyploidy, aneuploidies, syndromes) and structural chromosomal aberrations (deletion, duplication, inversion, translocations, fusions, Robertsonian translocation …) and examples human syndromes; Main sources of these aberrations; Nondisjunction; Evaluation of human karyotypes

Podmínky zakončení předmětu - angličtina
Poslední úprava: Zdenka Křížková (22.05.2018)

Completing a subject:

  • Sommer and winter semester credits (each credit test is limited by one regular and two re-credit terms) obtained by the end of  the examination period

  • Final exam passed till the 15th of September 2018 (Detailed information about the final exam: See  …)

Winter semester credit:

  • Regular attendance at practical training

  • All credit tests passed

  • According to the teacher's requirements: lab protocols written and handed over to the teacher till the deadline

Sommer semester credit:

  • Regular attendance at practical training

  • All credit tests passed

  • According to the teacher's requirements: Solved tasks in the manual (Each student is due to print this manual from intranet pdf-file at the beginning of the semester)

Information for students with learning disabilities, etc.: inform your teachers at the beginning of the year/semester; later requirements (during the day of test/exam) cannot be taken into account

 
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