PředmětyPředměty(verze: 861)
Předmět, akademický rok 2019/2020
  
Mikrobiologie II - EA0105084
Anglický název: Microbiology II
Zajišťuje: Ústav mikrobiologie (14-510)
Fakulta: Lékařská fakulta v Plzni
Platnost: od 2011
Semestr: zimní
Body: 5
E-Kredity: 5
Způsob provedení zkoušky: zimní s.:
Rozsah, examinace: zimní s.:3/2 Z+Zk [hodiny/týden]
Počet míst: neomezen / neomezen (neurčen)
Minimální obsazenost: neomezen
Stav předmětu: vyučován
Jazyk výuky: angličtina
Způsob výuky: prezenční
Úroveň:  
Pro druh:  
Poznámka: odhlásit z termínu zkoušky při nesplněné rekvizitě
Garant: RNDr. Karel Fajfrlík, Ph.D.
Vyučující: RNDr. Karel Martínek, Ph.D.
Korekvizity : EA0103012, EA0104011, EA0104510
K//Je korekvizitou pro: EA0107041, EA0108120, EA0107015, EA0110020, EA0108024, EA0108031, EA0108030, EA0108023
Anotace
Poslední úprava: Ing. Lenka Křikavová (23.10.2019)
Během výuky získají studenti základní znalosti o lékařsky významných bakteriích, virech, houbách a parazitech, o
úloze fyziologické mikroflóry a o principech patogenního působení mikroorganizmu na hostitele. Součástí získaných
znalostí je i problematika specifické prevence a terapie mikrobiálních infekcí a informace o epidemiologii infekčních
onemocnění a o nových poznatcích v oboru mikrobiologie.
Během praktické výuky získají studenti základní dovednosti v odběru materiálu na mikrobiologické vyšetření a v
laboratorní diagnostice jednotlivých skupin mikroorganizmů. Také získají informace o možných laboratorních
diagnostických metodách v mikrobiologii včetně nově zaváděných postupů.
Sylabus - angličtina
Poslední úprava: RNDr. Karel Martínek, Ph.D. (29.10.2019)

Microbiology, General Medicine - Syllabus

 First semester:          practical courses - 2 hrs/week

Second semester:      lectures - 3 hrs/week

                                   practical courses - 2 hrs/week

 Lectures, Clinical microbiology:

 1.      Introduction, history of clinical microbiology, evolution of microbes, bacterial genetics (viruses, bacteria, parasites, mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer - transformation, transduction, conjugation, specific genetic elements - insertion sequences, transposons, integrons, etc.) 

2.      Principles of general microbiology, factors responsible for virulence, pathogenesis of infectious diseases (structure of virus, virus living cycle, basic knowledge of immunity response, barriers, bacterial toxins, adhesins, mechanisms of escape against immunity, etc.)

3.      Review of clinically important  G+ bacteria (characteristics, factors responsible for virulence, diseases, diagnostics, epidemiology, antibiotic therapy; Streptococcus spp., Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., etc.)

4.      Review of clinically important  G- bacteria  (characteristics, factors responsible for virulence, diseases, diagnostics, epidemiology, antibiotic therapy; Neisseria spp., Haemophilus spp., Enterobacteriaceae, Vibrio spp., Campylobacter spp., Helicobacter spp., Pseudomonas and other non-fermenting rods, Legionella spp.)

5.      Review of clinically important  bacteria (characteristics, factors responsible for virulence, diseases, diagnostics, epidemiology, antibiotic therapy; Mycobacterium spp., Nocardia spp., Actinomyces spp., Chlamydia spp., Mycoplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., anaerobic bacteria - review of the most important species, e.g. Clostridium difficile, C. perfringens, C. tetani, C. botulinum, Peptostreptococcus spp., Fusobacterium spp.)

6.      Review of clinically important parasites 1 (physiology of parasite, living cycle, vectors, diseases, diagnostics, treatment; protozoology, Trypanosoma spp., Leishmania spp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamobea histolytica, Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Balantidium coli, Cryptosporidium parvum)

7.      Review of clinically important parasites 2 (physiology of parasite, living cycle, vectors, diseases, diagnostics, treatment; helminthology, medical entomology, Fascilopsis buski, Paragonimus westermani, Clonorchis sinensis, Schistosoma, spp., Taenia spp., Echinococcus spp., Hymenolepis nana, Nematodes)

8.      Review of clinically important fungi (characteristics, factors responsible for virulence, diseases, diagnostics, epidemiology, therapy; Candida spp., Craptococcus spp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., dermatomycoses, Hystoplasma spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii)

9.      Antibiotics (basic groups of antibiotics, mechanism of action, molecules; beta-lactams, glycopeptides, polymyxins, amynoglykosides, quinolones, sulfonamides, chloramphenicol, etc.)

10.  Mechanisms and epidemiology of antibiotic resistance (mechanisms of bacterial resistence, clonal spread of resistant bacteria, horizontal transfer of genes - mobilisation of genes, mobile genetic elements, integrons, co-resistnace, cross-resistance) 

11.  Hospital-acquired infections (definition, examples of the most important pathogens, resistence bacteria as a causative agents of hospital-acquired infections - MRSA, VRE, resistant Gram-negative rods - production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, carbapenemases)

12.  Review of viral diseases 1 (structure of virus, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnostics, prevention, therapy; papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, adenovirus, herpesviruses, poxviruses, picornaviruses, coronaviruses,  paramyxoviruses, influenza virus, rhabdoviruses, filoviruses, reoviruses, togaviruses and flaviviruses, togaviruses, bunyaviridae) 

13.  Review of viral diseases  2 (structure of virus, pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnostics, prevention, therapy; retroviruses - HIV, hepatitis viruses)

14.  Indication, limitations, and interpretation of microbiological diagnostics methods

 

 

 Microbiology exercises for general medicine I. (summer semester)

 1) Introduction - safety, classification of microbes, characterization of main groups of microbes

2) Dizinfection and sterilization - fyzical and chemical methods  and agents, indication and quality control, laboratory equipment and its application

3) Cultivation I. - specimens collection, processing and storage, culture media characteristics

4) Cultivation II. - seeding of culture media, characteristics of  microbial growth

5) Microscopy I. - Gram stain, bacterial morphology

6) Microscopy II. - Acid-fast stain, negative stain, slides of clinical specimens, host cells identification

7) Cultivation III. - Biochemical and additional tests

8) Cultivation IV. - Antibiotic susceptibility testing

9) Immunological methods I.- terms definition, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies charteristics, production and application,

10)  Immunological methods II. - Principles of direct and indirect immunological methods

11) Immunological methods III. - Main assays, its characteristics, application and limits in diagnostics

12) Identification of medically important microbes - main groups of  microbes in cultures and microscopy slides

Credit conditions: attendance on practicals (three absences tolerated), written tests

 

Microbiology exercises for general medicine II. (winter semester)

 1) Normal Microflora, Preanalytic Phase of Diagnostic Cycle - normal microflora on culture media and microscopy slides, primocultures of various sites with fyziological colonization, specimens collection, storage, laboratory handbook

2) Laboratory diagnosis of Mycotic infections Specific diagnostic methods in mycology. Yeasts and moulds - diagnostic strategies, collection of specimens, causative agent detection and identification: Candida albicansCandida sp., Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Trichophyton sp., Microsporum sp.

3)Laboratory Diagnosis  of Parasitic Infections -  coprology - methods of concentration, blood smears, vaginal smears. Protozoan parasites -  diagnostic strategies, collection of specimens, causative agent detection and identification: Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania sp., Entamoeba sp., Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium sp.. Helminths - diagnostic strategies, collection of specimens, causative agent detection and identification: Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia saginata, Toxocara sp.

4) Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections - Specific diagnostic methods in virology. Diagnostic strategies, collection of specimens, causative agent detection and identification.

 5) Laboratory Diagnosis of Skin Mucosae and Soft Tissues Infections, Laboratory Diagnoses of Anaerobes -diagnostic strategies,  collection of specimens, causative agent  detection and identification: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium sp. (histolytic), non-spore-forming anaerobes.

 6) Laboratory Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infections, Sexually Transmited Diseases - diagnostic strategies,  collection of specimens, causative agent  detection and identification: Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Treponema pallidum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis

7) Laboratory Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Tract Infections - diagnostic strategies,  collection of specimens, causative agent  detection and identification: Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori.

8) Laboratory Diagnosis of Respiratory Tract Infections - diagnostic strategies,  collection of specimens, causative agent  detection and identification: Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumonie, Haemophilus influenzae, Bordetella pertussis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,  Chlamydia pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis,  Corynebacterium diphteriae

10)Laboratory Diagnosis of CNS Infections, Nosocomial Infections

9) Laboratory Diagnosis of Bloodstream Infections, Sepsis - diagnostic strategies, collection of specimens, causative agent detection and identification: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides, Streptococcus agalactiae, haemocultivation - collection of blood specimen, set up rules

11)Antimicrobial Therapy - Case Reports

12) Review

13)Credit Tests

Credit conditions: attendance on practicals (three absences tolerated), written and practical test

 
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