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Course, academic year 2018/2019
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Theoretical Cosmology I - NTMF222
Title in English: Teoretická kosmologie I
Guaranteed by: Institute of Theoretical Physics (32-UTF)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2018 to 2018
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: Dr. Sante Carloni, M.A., Ph.D.
Mgr. David Heyrovský, Ph.D.
Classification: Physics > Theoretical and Math. Physics
Annotation -
Last update: T_UTF (14.05.2014)
First semester of a modern theoretical-cosmology course. Basic cosmological models; early universe and cosmic inflation; fluctuations, perturbations and structure growth; cosmic microwave background radiation; dark sides of the universe; dark ages and new enlightenment; final destiny of the universe. Mainly for master and PhD students of theoretical physics, nuclear and particle physics and astrophysics. Knowledge of general relativity and quantum field theory is assumed at the level of NTMF111 and NJSF068 courses. Emphasis on topics may vary according to the students' preferences.
Literature -
Last update: T_UTF (14.05.2014)

Griffiths J. B., Podolský J.: Exact Space-Times in Einstein's General Relativity. Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009.

Stephani H., Kamer D., MacCallum M., Hoenselaers C., Herlt E.: Exact Solutions of Einstein's Equations. Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003.

Bičák J.: Selected solutions of Einstein’s field equations: their role in general relativity and astrophysics, in Einstein’s Field Equations and their Physical Implications, Lecture notes in physics 540, Springer, Dordrecht, 2000.

Misner C. W., Thorne K. S., Wheeler J. A.: Gravitation, Freeman, San Francisco, 1973.

Syllabus
Last update: T_UTF (14.05.2014)
Basic cosmological models

Reminders from the General theory of relativity course (NTMF111): basic cosmological observations (distribution of matter in the universe, cosmic structures, large-scale homogeneity and isotropy), Olbers' paradox, cosmic expansion, big bang, CMBR; cosmological principle, spaces of constant curvature, FLRW metric; matter and radiation as “cosmic fluid”, evolution of their density; Friedmann equation, inventory of possible cosmic evolutions, role of matter, radiation, spatial curvature and cosmological constant; language of Omega-factors and current “concordance” parameter values. Geodesics, properties of the cosmic-fluid congruence; cosmological redshift; standard candles, cosmological distances (luminosity and angular-diameter distance), redshift-distance relation; cosmological particle and event horizons. Dynamics of expansion, cosmological evolution of crucial quantities. Dark matter, dark energy, problems of FLRW models.

Early universe

Thermal history of the universe; nucleosynthesis, baryon-to-photon ratio, baryon asymmetry, cosmic baryogenesis, Sakharov’s conditions, washout, baryogenesis in the Standard Model of particle interactions (baryon number violation, CP violation, instantons and sphalerons, problems of weak-scale baryogenesis), baryon-to-lepton number transitions, leptogenesis in the Standard Model with massive neutrinos, Davidson-Ibarra limit, grand unification.

Very early universe: Cosmic inflation

Shortcomings of the standard model of cosmology, introduction of the idea of inflationary expansion. Scalar field as a model for inflationary behaviour, Guth’s inflation, additional inflationary models based on scalar fields (connection with GUT and early universe); phase transitions, bubble dynamics, (classical) evolution of scalar field’s quantum fluctuations and metric fluctuations. Observational signatures of inflation, alternative realizations of inflation.

Fluctuations, perturbations and structure growth

Perturbative treatment of matter clustering (connection with basic cosmology), definition of metric perturbations, derivation of Jeans’ criteria and description of linear collapse, gauge problem in relativistic perturbations, Bardeen’s approach to gauge invariant perturbations, basic ideas of covariant perturbations, non-linear perturbations and structure growth (basic ideas).

Cosmic microwave background radiation

Detailed description of the matter era (dust and radiation), origin of CMB radiation, multifluid perturbation theory, characterization of the primary anisotropies (acoustic oscillations, Silk damping), secondary anisotropies (gravitational lensing, Sachs-Wolfe effect, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), polarization (E modes and B modes), CMB spectrum features and its significance, CMB fast algorithm, CAMB algorithm.

Dark sides of the universe

Dark energy, dark matter - basic observations, cosmological constant, time dependent cosmological constant and quintessence, X-essence, current models of dark energy (inhomogeneous universe and averaging, modified gravity). Dark matter distribution from weak lensing and from cosmic shear, observational constraints on dark matter and dark-energy models.

Dark ages, new enlightenment and structure formation

Dark ages, atoms, molecules, stars, galaxies: structure-formation models and simulations. Large-scale structure of the universe. Baryon acoustic oscillations.

Final destiny of the universe

Very-long-range forecasts…

 
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