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Course, academic year 2018/2019
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Integrated and Fibre Optics - NOOE007
Title in English: Integrovaná a vláknová optika
Guaranteed by: Institute of Physics of Charles University (32-FUUK)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2018 to 2018
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: prof. Ing. Štefan Višňovský, DrSc.
Classification: Physics > Optics and Optoelectronics
Annotation -
Last update: T_FUUK (09.05.2001)
Transmission of large volumes of information at optical frequencies. Propagation of electromagnetic wave in the media confined in one or two dimensions. Ray optics approach to optical waveguides. Transfer of ideas from microwave theory and quantum mechanics. Preparation of thin film optical devices. Integrated optics. Electromagnetic theory of dielectric waveguides. Waveguiding in planar and cylindrical structures. Optical fibers with step-like and graded permittivity profiles. Conditions for single mode operation.. Coupling of free space waves into the waveguide. Thin film electro-optic, acousto-optic and magneto-optic modulators.
Aim of the course -
Last update: VISNOV/MFF.CUNI.CZ (15.05.2008)

The lecture is focussed on the basic physical concepts of information processing at optical frequencies.

Course completion requirements -
Last update: prof. Ing. Štefan Višňovský, DrSc. (13.06.2019)

Oral exam

Literature -
Last update: prof. Ing. Štefan Višňovský, DrSc. (13.06.2019)

T. Tamir,ed., Integrated Optics, Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 7, Springer-Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 1975. D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics, Bell Laboratories Series, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York / Cincinnati /Toronto / London / Melbourne 1972. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide theory, Chapman & Hall, London / New York / Tokyo / Melbourne / Madras 1991. R. Olshansky, Propagation in glass optical waveguides, Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 51, No. 2, April 1979, 341-366. P. K. Tien, Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical wave guides, Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 1977, 361-420 Optics, Bell Laboratories Series, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York / Cincinnati /Toronto / London / Melbourne 1972. A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide theory, Chapman & Hall, London / New York / Tokyo / Melbourne / Madras 1991. R. Olshansky, Propagation in glass optical waveguides, Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 51, No. 2, April 1979, 341-366. P. K. Tien, Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical wave guides, Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 49, No. 2, April 1977, 361-420. A. W. Snyder, Understanding Monomode Optical Fibers, Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 69, No. 1, January 1981.

Štefan Višňovský, Integrated and Fiber Optics, 2019, Lecture Notes in Czech (English version under preparation) 457 pp. (available to students enrolled in the course).

Teaching methods -
Last update: VISNOV/MFF.CUNI.CZ (15.05.2008)

Lecture

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: prof. Ing. Štefan Višňovský, DrSc. (13.06.2019)

Nonsymmetrical planar dielectric waveguide. Dispersion relations for TE a TM modes and their graphical solutions. Field profiles of guided modes. Analogy with the quantum problem of a particle in a rectangular potential well.

Circular cylindrical dielectric fiber waveguide with a step index profile (a homogeneous core and a homogeneous cladding). Field transformation from the Cartesian to circular cylindrical coordinates. Vector Helmholtz equation in cylindrical coordinates. Bessel equation. Expression of modal fields in terms of cylindrical functions. Boundary conditions. Eigenvalue equation relating the propagation constant with the core radius - frequency product. TE a TM modes. Hybrid modes. Mode nomenclature and cut-off frequencies, cut-off core radius. Fundamental mode and its cut-off frequency. Condition for monomode operation.

Monomode circular cylindrical dielectric fiber waveguide with a generalized profile of the index of refraction. Assumption of small refractive index difference between the core and the cladding (weak guidance approximation). Cartesian field components in a weakly guiding circular cylindrical dielectric waveguide (fiber). Linearly polarized eigen modes. Analytical representation of the refractive index profile in circular cylindrical dielectric waveguide, limiting cases: Gaussian and step refractive index fiber profiles. Variation approach to the propagation constant. Influence of the permittivity profile on the Poynting vector profile. Condition for a maximum concentration of energy in the fiber. Fibers with elliptical cross sections.

Syllabus -
Last update: prof. Ing. Štefan Višňovský, DrSc. (13.06.2019)

INTEGRATED OPTICS & FIBER OPTICS

(F365, 2/0 Zk) Štefan Višňovský.

Waves in bounded regions. Wave equation in non uniform media: plane wave solutions. Optical systems with constant index of refraction along a special axis. Boundary conditions at interfaces. Fresnel equations. Phase shift for TE and TM waves at total reflection, longitudinal and transverse propagation constants.

Waveguide with ideally conducting walls, propagation characteristics. TE and TM modes in rectangular waveguides. TEM waves. Resonance cavities.

Ray model for an optical planar waveguide. Rectangular profile of the index of refraction. Radiation, substrate and guided modes. Characteristic equation of a planar waveguide and its graphical solutions. Cut-off conditions. Normalized waveguide characteristics. Goos-Haenchen shift. Effective waveguide thickness. Planar dielectric waveguides of general permittivity profile. Parabolic profile (analogy with the quantum harmonic oscillator). 1/cosh permittivity profile.

Wave propagation in anisotropic planar dielectric structures. Eigen values of the propagation constant and associated eigen modes. Periodic waveguides.

Maxwell equations in symmetric planar dielectric waveguide. Even and odd TE and TM modes. Field profiles. Relations between field amplitudes and transmitted power.

Maxwell equations in general planar waveguide with step index profile. Characteristic equations for TE and TM modes. Field profiles. Analogy with a nonsymmetrical rectangular quantum well.

Couplers for dielectic waveguides. Prism coupler. Diffraction grating coupler. Wedge coupler. Rule of maximum index of refraction.

Cylindrical dielectric waveguide with rectangular index profile (optical fiber). Transformation of Maxwell equations into cylindrical coordinates. Vector Helmholtz wave equation in cylindrical coordinates. Fields characterized in terms of cylindrical functions. TE and TM modes. Fundamental mode. Mode nomenclature. Conditions for monomode transmission.

Monomode cylindrical waveguide with a generalized permittivity profile. Weak guidance approximation. Cartesian field components as a function of cylindrical coordinates. Analytic expressions for permittivity profiles. Limiting cases: step profile and Gaussian profile. Fundamental mode parameters deduced from variation approach. Poynting vector as a function of radial profile. Condition for maximum power concentration at the fiber axis. Extension to fibers with elliptic profiles.

 
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