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Course, academic year 2017/2018
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Structure of the Earth - NGEO016
Czech title: Stavba Země
Guaranteed by: Department of Geophysics (32-KG)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2016
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 4
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:3/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech, English
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Ctirad Matyska, DrSc.
Classification: Physics > Geophysics
Annotation -
Last update: T_KG (16.05.2001)

History of the global Earth models. Free oscillations of the Earth - theoretical introduction. PREM. Mineral physics under high pressures and temperatures. Seismic tomography - global models. Three-dimensional density anomalies and mantle convection.
Aim of the course -
Last update: T_KG (26.03.2008)

The lecture introduces into basic methodological approaches resulting in description of global physical properties of the Earth.

Literature - Czech
Last update: RNDr. Pavel Zakouřil, Ph.D. (05.08.2002)

  • M. Šolc, J. Zahradník, Astronomie, astrofyzika a geofyzika I: Země a sluneční msoustava, MFF UK, Praha 1985.
  • G.F. Davies, Dynamic Earth, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999.
  • Š. Ochaba, Geofyzika, Slovenské pedagogické nakladatelstvo, Bratislava 1986.
  • J.-P. Poirier, Introduction to the Physics of the Earth's Interior, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2000.
  • D.E. James (ed.), Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1989.
  • Z. Martinec, Free Oscillation of the Earth, Travaux Géophysiques No. 591.

Teaching methods -
Last update: T_KG (11.04.2008)

Lecture

Syllabus -
Last update: T_KG (07.05.2002)

Models of the Earth's internal constitution - historical outline

18th-19th centuries - density models based on geodetic observations; seismology in the first half of the 20th century - wave phases, standard hodochrons, interfaces (CMB, Moho, inner core), Jeffreys-Bullen tables, 20°-discontinuity; Bullen's velocity and density models - Adams-Williamson's equation; continental drift and plate tectonics; computer era in seismology (surface waves, free oscillations, seismic tomography); mineral physics and geodynamical modelling.

Free oscillations of the Earth

Historical remarks; basic axioms in continuum mechanics, the Cauchy and the Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors and momentum equations, boundary conditions; linearized theory - relation between the Cauchy and the Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors in a prestressed body and the momentum equation for a general model of the Earth; SNREI - toroidal and spheroidal oscillations; mode splitting due to asphericities.

PREM

Data, anisotropy, resulting model.

Postglacial rebound

Timescales of slow processes in the Earth - comparison of momentum equations and rheological behaviour; viscoelasticity and the Laplace transform; Love numbers and normal modes; relaxation times of basic modes; viscosity profiles of the mantle.

Mineral physics

Mineralogical composition of the Earth's interior; Clapeyron's equation; shock waves experiments - Hugoniot's relations; characteristics of static experiments; phase transitions in the mantle in olivine and pyroxene-garnet groups and their relevance to 440km and 670km interfaces; state of the core - melting of iron.

Global seismic tomography

Kinematic tomography - linearization; "local" and "global" parametrizations by boxes and/or spherical harmonics; minimizations of the misfit functional - overdetermined and underdetermined problems; global results for the mantle, D" (CMB) and the core; fate of lithospheric slabs and the lower mantle superplumes.

Remarks on 3-D geodynamical modelling

Body forces - problems with the conversion of tomographic models into density anomalies; non-uniqueness and instability of the gravity inversion, couplings - lateral variations and nonlinearity of the rheology.

Literature:

  • G.F. Davies, Dynamic Earth, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999.
  • J.-P. Poirier, Introduction to the Physics of the Earth's Interior, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2000.
  • D.E. James (ed.), Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1989.
  • Z. Martinec, Free Oscillation of the Earth, Travaux Géophysiques No. 591.

 
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