Geothermics and Radioactivity of the Earth - NGEO015
Czech title: Geotermika a radioaktivita Země
Guaranteed by: Department of Geophysics (32-KG)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2013
Semester: summer
E-Credits: 5
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:2/1 C+Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: not taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Ctirad Matyska, DrSc.
Classification: Physics > Geophysics
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Annotation -
Last update: T_KG (16.05.2001)

Heat transfer in a moving continuum. Internal and external heat sources. Radioactive decay and absolute age determination of rocks. Heat conduction. Thermal models of the Earth.
Aim of the course -
Last update: T_KG (26.03.2008)

Students will learn fundamental principles of heat transfer in continuum thermomechanics and their applications in construction of thermal models of the Earth.

Literature - Czech
Last update: RNDr. Pavel Zakouřil, Ph.D. (05.08.2002)

  • C. Matyska, Mathematical Introduction to Geothermics and Geodynamics, předběžná verze učebního textu.
  • G.F. Davies, Dynamic Earth, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999.
  • C.A. Stein, Heat Flow of the Earth, in: Global Earth Physics, A Handbook of Physical Constants, T.J. Ahrens ed., pp. 144-158, AGU 1995.
  • V. Čermák: Studium zemského tepelného toku, Cs. cas. fyz. A, 33, 461-470, 1983.

Teaching methods -
Last update: T_KG (11.04.2008)

Lecture + exercises

Syllabus -
Last update: T_KG (07.05.2002)

Transfer of heat in a movable continuum

Balance of heat and mechanical works (heat contents, heat conductivity, heat sources and dissipation) - heat equation for entropy; homogeneous materials - choice of the state variables and analysis of the terms in the heat equation (local change of temperature, heat conductivity, heat advection, adiabatic heating/cooling, dissipation, heat sources).

Coefficients in the heat equation and boundary conditions

Heat conductivity and capacity, mass density, heat sources, heat flow measurements, surface temperature - radiation of the surface.

Radioactivity of the Earth and geochronology

Alpha-, beta- and k-decays; method of isochrons; Rb and Pb methods; Ar method; C method; age of the Earth.

Analytic solutions of heat conductivity problems

Penetration of temperature changes from the surface; homogeneous equation for a layer; non-homogeneous equation for a layer; fundamental solution in a 1-D space and a half-space; numerical examples of the half-space cooling.

Thermal modelling of the continental crust

Depth-distribution of radioactive elements; 1-D modelling; ill-posed problems of 2-D and 3-D modelling - (non)existence and instability of downward heat flow continuation.

Thermal models of the oceanic lithosphere

Half-space model - analytic solution, surface heat flow, bathymetry, change of the sea level in the geological past; plate model - equilibrium of the old lithosphere; release of heat in subduction zones.

Temperature in the mantle and the core

Adiabatic gradient; estimates of temperatures in the mantle by means of the adiabatic continuation from the asthenosphere; melting experiments with iron - temperature of the inner core-outer core boundary and adiabatic continuation, temperature drop across D".

Hotspots

Distribution; origin; interaction with the lithosphere; hotspot reference frame - true polar wander.

Onset of convection

Stability analysis of a layer heated from below.

Literature:

  • C. Matyska, Mathematical Introduction to Geothermics and Geodynamics.
  • G.F. Davies, Dynamic Earth, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1999.
  • C.A. Stein, Heat Flow of the Earth, in: Global Earth Physics, A Handbook of Physical Constants, T.J. Ahrens ed., pp. 144-158, AGU 1995.