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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Low Temperature Physics and Techniques - NFPL168
Title: Fyzika a technika nízkých teplot
Guaranteed by: Department of Low Temperature Physics (32-KFNT)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2021
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0, Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: prof. RNDr. Ladislav Skrbek, DrSc.
doc. RNDr. David Schmoranzer, Ph.D.
Annotation -
Basic properties of cryogenic liquids, Joule-Thomson effect, principles of helium liquefier. Mechanical and electrical properties of materials at low temperatures. Bath and flow cryostats. Suoerconducting magnets. 3He - 4He mixtures, dilution refrigerator. Adiabatic demagnetization of paramagnetic salts, nuclear demagnetization. Pomeranchuk effect. Cooling methods based on transport effects in solids. Low temperature thermometry. Kapitza resistance. Low temperature relaxation process.
Last update: T_KFNT (23.05.2003)
Literature - Czech

1. L. Skrbek a kol.: Fyzika a technika nízkých teplot, Matfyzpress Praha 2011

2. F. Pobell: Matter and methods at low temperatures, Springer Berlin 2007

Last update: Chlan Vojtěch, doc. RNDr., Ph.D. (13.05.2019)
Requirements to the exam - Czech

Zkouška je ústní, požadavky korespondují se sylabem přednášky v rozsahu prezentovaném na přednášce.

Last update: Rotter Miloš, doc. RNDr., CSc. (10.10.2017)
Syllabus -
1. Introduction
Notion of low temperature physics. History of reaching and use of low temperatures. Ways to absolute zero. Review of liquefying and cooling methods.

2. Superfluidity
Superfluid 4He. Experiments in He II. Bose-Einstein statistics. Two-fluid model. Landau theory of excitations. Feynman theory of vortices. Sound propagation in He II. Ions in liquid He. Superfluid 3He phases. Fermi-Dirac statistics. Condensates, dynamic and magnetic properties of the A, A1 and B phases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. Topology and collective modes. Rotating superfluid 3He. Mixture of 3He and 4He, dilution refrigerator. Pomeranchuk effect. Solid 4He and 3He. Magnetism of solid 3He.

3. Superconductivity
Electrical resistance, Meissner effect. London equation. Magnetic properties of superconductors. Microscopic theory, BCS theory. Flux quantization, quantum vortices. Weak superconductivity, Josephson effects, SQUID. High temperature superconductors.

4. Magnetism at low temperature
Paramagnetism, adiabatic demagnetization. Nuclear magnetism, nuclear demagnetization. Static orientation of nuclear moments. NMR and relaxation at low temperatures. Magnetic thermometry (susceptibility, nuclear orientation, NMR thermometry).

5. Selected topics of solid state physics at low temperature Heat capacity of solids, thermal relaxation. Heat transfer, Kapitza resistance. Resistance thermometry. Quantum Hall effect.

Last update: T_KFNT (23.05.2003)
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