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Course, academic year 2018/2019
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Structure of Matter and Structure Analysis - NFPL144
Title in English: Struktura látek a strukturní analýza
Guaranteed by: Department of Condensed Matter Physics (32-KFKL)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2017
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 7
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:3/2 C+Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Additional information: http://www.xray.cz/FPL144
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: prof. RNDr. Radomír Kužel, CSc.
prof. RNDr. Václav Holý, CSc.
doc. RNDr. Stanislav Daniš, Ph.D.
Class: Fyzika
Classification: Physics > Solid State Physics
Annotation -
Last update: T_KFES (14.05.2014)
Crystal structure and symmetry - history of crystallography, point, plane and space groups, cells, symmetry operations, crystal shapes, chemical crystallography, structure databases, structure visualization, physical crystallography. Diffraction theory - geometrical principles, reciprocal lattice, interaction of radiation with matter, scattering on electron, atom and ensemble of atoms, atomic scattering factor, anomalous scattering, structure factor, temperature factor, dynamic theory of diffraction, wave equation for periodic medium. Comparison of electron, neutron and X-ray scattering.
Course completion requirements - Czech
Last update: prof. RNDr. Václav Holý, CSc. (06.10.2017)

Zkouška se sestává z písemné a ústní části. Písemná část spočívá ve vyřešení velmi snadného problému, který nevyžaduje dlouhé počítání (max. 30 min). Ústní část navazuje na řešení zmíněného problému a trvá max. 45 min. Známka zkoušky se stanoví ze souhrnného hodnocení písemné a ústní části. Požadavky zkoušky odpovídají sylabu předmětu v rozsahu, který byl odpřednášen.

Literature -
Last update: prof. RNDr. Radomír Kužel, CSc. (10.05.2019)

Jens Als-Nielsen, Des McMorrow: Elements of Modern X-Ray Physics, Wiley 2011

Václav Valvoda, Milena Polcarová, Pavel Lukáč: Základy strukturní analýzy. Univerzita Karlova. Praha 1992.

I. Kraus: Úvod do strukturní rentgenografie. Academia. Praha 1985.

Další

Maureen M. Julian: Foundations of Crystallography with Computer Applications. CRC Press. Taylor and Francis Group. 2015

Boris K. Vainshtein: Modern crystallography. Vol. 1. Fundamentals of crystals. Symmetry, and methods of structural crystallography. (Second enlarged edition.) Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1994

Robert E. Newnham: Properties of Materials. Anisotropy. Symmetry. Structure. Oxford University Press. 2005

Marc de Graaf and Michael McHenry: Structure of Materials. An Introduction to Crystallograhy, Diffraction and Symmetry. Cambridge University Press. 2007

Requirements to the exam - Czech
Last update: prof. RNDr. Václav Holý, CSc. (06.10.2017)

Požadavky zkoušky odpovídají sylabu předmětu v rozsahu, který byl odpřednášen.

Syllabus -
Last update: T_KFES (06.10.2014)

I. Crystal structure and symmetry.

1. History of crystallography and structure analysis. Translation periodicity of crystals. Notation of crystallographic directions and planes, elementary cells. Transformations of axes and plane indices. Matrix notation of symmetry operations. Stereographic projections. Groups, multiplication tables. Point groups. Hermann-Mauguin symbols. Bravais lattices.

2. Crystallographic systems. Plane lattice and plane groups.

3. Space groups. Equivalent positions. Wyckoff notation. International tables of crystallography.

4. Crystal shape. Chemical bonding. Chemical crystallogrpahy. Structure types. Examples of basic structure types. Crystallographic databases and software for crystal structure visualization.

5. Influence of crystal symmetry on properties of compounds. Tensors and anisotropy of macroscopic properties. Neumann principle. Voigt principle. Curie principle.

II. Diffraction theory.

1. Geometric principles of diffraction. Reciprocal lattice. Laue conditions. Ewald construction.

2. Interaction of X-rays with matter. Absorption of radiation in material. Plane and spherical wave. Thomson and Compton scattering. Scattering on atom and ensamble of atoms. Atomic scattering factor, anomalous dispersion and absorption. Introduction of structure factor. Electron density and Fourier transformation. Basic atributes of diffraction peaks (position, intensity, width, shape) in kinematic theory of diffraction.

3. Static and dynamic displacements, temperature factor. Coherence length of photon. Crystals of finite dimensions.

4. Dynamic theory of diffraction. Wave equation for periodic medium. Single wave and two wave approximation. Some experimental effects - Pendellösung, Borrmann effect. Wave field in the diffracting crystal.

5. Comparison of scattering by X-rays, neutrons and electrons.

 
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