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Course, academic year 2019/2020
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Fundamentals of Cryogenics - NFPL095
Title in English: Základy kryotechniky
Guaranteed by: Department of Low Temperature Physics (32-KFNT)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2019 to 2019
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Miloš Rotter, CSc.
RNDr. David Schmoranzer, Ph.D.
Classification: Physics > Solid State Physics
Annotation -
Last update: RNDr. Vojtěch Chlan, Ph.D. (13.05.2019)
Facultative lecture which complets the introductory lecture "Low Temperature Physics" FPL 099. It concerns the problems of technics and technology of low temperature experiment. Suitable for students of 1st and 2nd year of Mgr solid state physics study.
Aim of the course -
Last update: KFNTMR/MFF.CUNI.CZ (13.04.2008)

The lecture devoted to the practical aspects of low temperature facilities design and maintainenance, complementary lecture to the NFPL099 Low Temperature Physics.

Course completion requirements -
Last update: RNDr. David Schmoranzer, Ph.D. (13.06.2019)

The exam is oral. Requirements correspond to syllabus of the subject to the extent presented at the lecture.

Literature - Czech
Last update: RNDr. Vojtěch Chlan, Ph.D. (13.05.2019)

1. J.Jelínek, Z.Málek: Kryogenní technika, SNTL Praha 1982

2. J.Vepřek: Elektrická měření nízkých teplot, SNTL Praha 1977

3. M.Rotter: Fyzikální základy a technika nízkoteplotního experimentu, SPN Praha 1982

4. R.C.Richardson, E.N.Smith: Experimental Techniques in Condensed Matter Physics at Low Temperatures, Addison-Wesley New York 1988

5. F.Pobell: Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures, Springer Berlin 1992

6. L. Skrbek a kol.: Fyzika nízkých teplot, Matfyzpress Praha 2011

Teaching methods -
Last update: KFNTMR/MFF.CUNI.CZ (13.04.2008)

The lecture accents the practical knowledges by means of design of specific low temperature apparatuses, of their work optimization and of methods of measurement and control.

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: RNDr. David Schmoranzer, Ph.D. (13.06.2019)

Knowledge of the fundamental principles of reaching and measuring low temperatures: cryoliquids, dilution refrigerators, adiabatic demagnetization. Resistive and magnetic thermometry, noise thermometers.

Overview of traditional materials and designs, methods of suppressing external heat input. Ability to approximately calculate the heat transfer by conduction along construction elements and electrical leads inside a cryostat.

Basic vacuum technology and its applications in cryogenics.

Syllabus -
Last update: T_KFNT (02.05.2003)
1. Introduction
History of low temperature techniques. The role of low temperature technology in science and industry.

2. Methods of low temperature production
Properties of liquid refrigerants. Principles of liquefiers and cryogenerators and their design. Semiconductor cooling elements. Storage and transport of liquid refrigerants.

3. Safety rules of handling with cryogenic devices.
4. Design of cryogenic apparatus
Thermal and mechanical properties of cryogenic materials. Materials and jointing methods (welding, soldering and sealing). Thermal insulation. Elements of vacuum techniques (vacuum pumps, valves, jointing elements, vacuum sensors, leak detectors). Thermal analysis of cryogenic devices. Design of cryostats and cryogenic apparatuses.

5. Low temperature measurements and control
Problems of physics in low temperature thermometry. International temperature scales. Gas and vapor thermometers. Resistance, diode, capacitance and thermoelectric temperature sensors. Electronic devices for low temperature sensors. Control of low temperatures.

6. Use of superconductivity
Superconducting magnetic facilities. Design of superconducting solenoids, current leads and switches. Superconducting thermal switches.

7. Temperatures below 1 K
Dilution refrigerators. Adiabatic and nuclear demagnetization refrigerators. Pomeranchuk cooling. Very low temperature thermometry.

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