Space Plasma - NEVF145
Title in English: Plazma v kosmickém prostoru
Guaranteed by: Department of Surface and Plasma Science (32-KFPP)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2012 to 2019
Semester: summer
E-Credits: 3
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. František Němec, Ph.D.
prof. RNDr. Zdeněk Němeček, DrSc.
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Annotation -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Jiří Pavlů, Ph.D. (24.01.2019)
Introduction to space physics, plasma and dusty plasmas. Motions of charged particles in E and B time-varying electromagnetic fields. Fundamental equations of magnetohydrodynamics. Sun, solar wind plasma and interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind interaction with obstacles. Used coordinate systems. Formation of the Earth´s magnetosphere and its dynamics. Diagnostic methods and techniques in space.
Literature - Czech
Last update: T_KEVF (09.05.2005)

Chen F. F.: Úvod do fyziky plazmatu, Academia, Praha 1984.

Kivelson M. G., Russell C. T.: Introduction to Space Physics, Cambridge, University Press, 1995.

Goldston R. J., Rutherford P. H.: Introduction to Plasma Physics, IOP Publishing, Ltd. 1995.

Requirements to the exam - Czech
Last update: doc. RNDr. František Němec, Ph.D. (06.10.2017)

Zkouška je ústní. Požadavky na její úspěšné složení odpovídají sylabu předmětu v rozsahu, který byl prezentován na přednášce.

Syllabus -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Jiří Pavlů, Ph.D. (24.01.2019)
1. Introduction to space physics
Definition space plasma, parameters and differences between laboratory and space plasmas. Maxwellian distribution function of velocities, drifting Maxwellian distribution, calculation of moments. Collective behavior, Debye shielding.

2. Dusty plasma
Determination of dusty plasma and dusty in the plasma. Dusty plasma applications in the space and in laboratory experiments - examples and impact.

3. Motions of charged particles in E and B time-varying electromagnetic fields
Gyration around the guilding center, ExB drift, grad B drift mechanism, curvature drift, drift in field of a general force. Magnetic moment and its conservation, magnetic bottles. Fermi acceleration. Applications on magnetospheric processes (ring current and radiation belts).

4. Fundamental equations of magnetohydrodynamics
Freezing of magnetic field, magnetic field diffusion, consequences and limitations of MHD approximation, magnetic reconnection. Wave processes in a plasma - Alfvén, and magnetosonic waves, non-linear effects - shock waves and solitons.

5. Sun as a source of space plasma
Processes inside the Sun, solar corona formation, solar magnetic field, solar activity cycles.

6. Solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)
History of solar wind discovery, Parker theory of the solar wind. Solar wind parameters and their variations, spiral form of IMF, sector IMF structure. Significant instabilities in the solar wind (MC, CME, CIR, HFA), interplanetary shocks.

7. Solar wind interaction with obstacles
Formation of the Earth's magnetosphere, magnetospheric boundaries and regions (magnetopause, etc.). Bow shock creation, bow shock processes, foreshock, magnetosheath (observations, simulations, and theories).

8. Used coordinate systems
Definition of different coordinate systems (GSE, GSM, SM) and their transformation, geographic and geomagnetic coordinates, local time.

9. Formation of the magnetosphere
Magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause for different orientation of IMF, influence of reconnection on magnetopause shape and position. Magnetospheric regions (cusp, low-latitude boundary layer, plasma mantle, plasma sheet, plasma sheet boundary layer, lobes). Magnetic field models, mapping of magnetospheric regions to auroral regions.

10. Magnetospheric dynamics
Geomagnetic indices (DST, Kp, AE). Initiation and evolution of geomagnetic storms and substorms. Auroral precipitation (discrete and diffuse aurorae), magnetospheric configuration changes as a result of IM orientation.

11. Diagnostic methods and techniques in space
Electric and magnetic field measurements, probe methods, integral methods of plasma parameter measurements, spectrometers. Measurements of charged particle fluxes. Measurements of mass-composition.