SubjectsSubjects(version: 845)
Course, academic year 2018/2019
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Cosmology I - NAST009
Title in English: Kosmologie I
Guaranteed by: Astronomical Institute of Charles University (32-AUUK)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2015 to 2019
Semester: summer
E-Credits: 4
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:3/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Attila Mészáros, DrSc.
RNDr. Jaroslav Haas, Ph.D.
Classification: Physics > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Annotation -
Last update: prof. RNDr. David Vokrouhlický, DrSc. (07.06.2019)
First semester of a course of cosmology. Brief historical introduction; basic cosmological terms and observational data; overview of the theory of the symmetric manifolds; cosmography; standard cosmological model and its equations; observational tests of the standard cosmological model. Designated primarily for master and Ph.D. students of astronomy and astrophysics, theoretical physics and particle and nuclear physics. Knowledge of the general theory of relativity at the level of NTMF111 course is assumed. Emphasis is put on the cosmological aspects of the astronomical observations.
Course completion requirements -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Attila Mészáros, DrSc. (07.06.2019)

Oral examination.

Literature -
Last update: RNDr. Jaroslav Haas, Ph.D. (14.01.2019)

E. Harrison (1981, 2000). Cosmology: The Science of the Universe. Cambridge University Press.

J. N. Islam (1992, 2002). An Introduction to Mathematical Cosmology. Cambridge University Press.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz (1975, 2000). The Classical Theory of Fields. Butterworth-Heinemann.

S. Weinberg (1972). Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity. John Wiley and Sons.

Teaching methods -
Last update: RNDr. Jaroslav Haas, Ph.D. (14.01.2019)

Lecture.

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: RNDr. Jaroslav Haas, Ph.D. (13.10.2017)

The exam consists of an oral part, only. The students are given two or three questions from the topics covered in the lectures and some time to prepare the answers. These are then discussed with the examiner.

Syllabus -
Last update: RNDr. Jaroslav Haas, Ph.D. (14.01.2019)

Introduction -- beginnings of cosmology and its definition; naive models and their representatives (Bruno, Galilei, Newton, Halley, de Chéseaux and others); concept of homogeneity and isotropy; statistical tests; distances and time-scales in the Universe; Olbers paradoxon; inhomogeneity in the distribution of stars; structure and dimensions of our Galaxy; distance of galaxy M31 in Andromeda; redshifts and the Hubble relation; distribution of extragalactic objects.

Overview of the theory of symmetric manifolds -- Killing vectors; scalars, vectors and tensors in maximally symmetric manifolds; Ricci tensor; Ricci scalar; Minkowski, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter metrics; maximally symmetric submanifolds; Friedmann metric and its derivation.

Maximally symmetric manifolds in cosmology -- perfect cosmological principle; steady-state Universe.

Cosmography -- cosmological principle; Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric; comoving coordinates; conformal time; redshift; definition of cosmological distances; Pogson relation in cosmology; relation between distance and redshift; K-correction.

Standard cosmological model and its equations -- Einstein equations without pressure and with pressure; critical density; Friedmann equation and its solutions; cosmological constant; Einstein model; omega-factors; deceleration parameter; horizon.

Observational tests of the standard cosmological model -- cosmological tests of homogeneity and isotropy; mean density of matter and radiation; dark and radiating matter; helium and other elements abundance in the Universe; accelerating Universe; cosmic microwave background radiation.

 
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