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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Solar Physics I - NAST001
Title: Sluneční fyzika I
Guaranteed by: Astronomical Institute of Charles University (32-AUUK)
Faculty: Faculty of Mathematics and Physics
Actual: from 2015
Semester: summer
E-Credits: 3
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:2/0, Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Guarantor: doc. Mgr. Michal Švanda, Ph.D.
Classification: Physics > Astronomy and Astrophysics
Annotation -
Last update: T_AUUK (25.03.2015)
The Sun as a star. Fundamental properties of the Sun, interior, evolution. Solar atmosphere. Oscillations, helioseismology. Magnetic fields in the Sun: Properties, phenomena, evolution. Energetic processes and phenomena on the Sun. Flares. Solar wind. Heliosphere. Spaceweather. Observations of the Sun.
Course completion requirements -
Last update: doc. Mgr. Michal Švanda, Ph.D. (10.06.2019)

Oral exam.

Literature -
Last update: T_AUUK (25.03.2015)

Stix, Michael 2004, The Sun : An Introduction, 2nd ed., by Michael Stix. Astronomy and astrophysics library, Berlin: Springer, 2004. ISBN: 3540207414

Stix, Michael 1989, The Sun. An Introduction, XIII, 390 pp. 192 figs. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York. Astronomy and Astrophysics Library

Foukal, Peter V. 2004, Solar Astrophysics, 2nd, Revised Edition, pp. 480. ISBN 3-527-40374-4. Wiley-VCH , April 2004.

Kippenhahn, Rudolf 1994, Discovering the secrets of the Sun, Chichester; New York: Wiley (v ceském prekladu Odhalená tajemství Slunce, edice Kolumbus, nakladatelství Mladé fronty, 1999).

Gibson, E. G. 1973, The Quiet Sun, NASA SP, Washington: National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Sturrock, P. A. 1986, Physics of the Sun, Volumes I-III., Dordrecht : Reidel, pp. 257+385+287

Švanda, M. 2012, Slunce, Aventinum

Living summaries of solar physics:

Teaching methods -
Last update: doc. Mgr. Michal Švanda, Ph.D. (10.06.2019)


Requirements to the exam -
Last update: doc. Mgr. Michal Švanda, Ph.D. (08.06.2019)

The exam is oral. The student pulls two questions to be answered. One question covers the topics of helioseismic methods, the second than the remaining topics. The third part of the exam is the test of the background knowledge, when the student pulls ten terms from the field of physics of the Sun, which are expected to be answered immediately. Each part of the exam is graded, the resulting grade is an arithmetical average of the subgrades. If any of the subgrades is 4 (nedostatečně), the total grade is also 4. The third part is evaluated according to the following scheme: 0-4 correct answers -- mark 4, 5-6 correct answers -- mark 3, 7-8 correct answers -- mark 2, 9-10 correct answers -- mark 1.

The requirements for the exam correspond to the subject syllable as it was discussed during the lectures.

Syllabus -
Last update: T_AUUK (25.03.2015)

The Sun as a star, solar analogues, activity of Sun-like stars. Superflares. History of solar observations. Origin of solar luminosity, neutrino problem.

Fundamental parameters of the Sun, internal structure, evolution. Gamov peak. Convection, mixing-length theory, convection with radiative losses. Leudox parameter. Scales of convection. Convection as a process of entropy exchange. Granules, supergranules. Large-scale convection.

Photosphere, chromosphere, chromospheric phenomena. Limb darkening, Eddington-Barbier relation. Standard models for solar atmosphere. Equilibrium within a prominence. Coupling from photosphere to corona.

Oscillations, helioseismology. Fundamental oscillation. Linear adiabatic oscillations of the non-rotating Sun. Cowling approximation. Brunt-Väisälä frequency, Lamb frequency. JWKB solution for g- and p-modes. F-mode. Duvall's law, inverse modelling. Perturbation theory. Global and local helioseismology. Ring-diagram and time-distance helioseismology. Asteroseismology.

Rotation of the Sun. Effect of rotation on internal structure of the Sun. Von Zeipel paradox. Torsional oscillations, meridional circulation. Origin of differential rotation. Rossby waves. Coordinate systems for the Sun.

Solar magnetism. Solar cycle and its mid- and long-term manifestations. Basics of solar dynamo theories. Observational evidence for flux tubes. Convective collapse, buoyancy of flux tubes. Sunspots: Classification and internal structure. Magnetohydrostatic model of sunspots. Faculae.

Energetic processes on the Sun. Dissipation of magnetic fields. Reconnection, flares. Classification of flares, standard model of solar flare. Neupert effect.

Transition region, corona. Temperature structure of the coronal loop. Forbidden emission lines. Coronal heating.

Solar wind, Parker's solution. Heliosphere. Spaceweather.

Effects of solar activity on interplanetary space.

Observations of the Sun.

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