SubjectsSubjects(version: 901)
Course, academic year 2022/2023
  
Plutons, volcanoes, and orogeny through time - MG420P10
Title: Plutons, volcanoes, and orogeny through time
Czech title: Plutony, sopky a orogeneze v čase
Guaranteed by: Institute of Geology and Paleontology (31-420)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2021
Semester: summer
E-Credits: 3
Examination process: summer s.:written
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: English, Czech
Explanation: Předmět byl inovován v rámci projektu ESF pro VŠ II na UK, reg. č.: CZ.02.2.69/0
Additional information: https://dl3.cuni.cz/course/view.php?id=391
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: prof. RNDr. Jiří Žák, Ph.D.
Class: Rotační magnetometr
Demagnetizér střídavého pole
Původní předmět
Opinion survey results   Examination dates   Schedule   
Annotation
Last update: prof. RNDr. Jiří Žák, Ph.D. (06.01.2022)
The class will provide an up-to-date overview of the evolution of magmatic systems in space and time, with an emphasis on a genetic link between magmatism and plate tectonics. A variety of intriguing issues related to mechanisms of emplacement and structural inventory, compositional and textural zonality, and magnetism of igneous bodies as a "recorder" of tectonic processes will be discussed. In the second part, students will learn about the causes, formation, and evolution of magmatism at convergent plate boundaries and in collisional orogens. We will also focus on the cyclicity of magmatism in magmatic arcs, the mechanisms of magma ascent under volcanoes and the structural record of pyroclastic eruptions of stratovolcanoes and calderas. This course loosely follows the lecture ‘Earth magnetism: geological, paleoclimatic, and biological applications’ (MG420P13) and practical course ‘Rock magnetism in practice’ (MG420P11), which focus on rock magnetic and paleomagnetic research methods in solving issues related to magmatic and tectonic processes. It is expected that the audience will have at least some geology and tectonic background. This lecture is not suitable for the first year undergraduate students.
Literature
Last update: prof. RNDr. Jiří Žák, Ph.D. (01.09.2020)

Nédélec, A., Bouchez, J.L., Bowden, P. (2015): Granites: Petrology, Structure, Geological Setting, and Metallogeny. Oxford University Press, 352 pp.

Pitcher, W.S. (1997): The Nature and Origin of Granite. Chapman and Hall, 387 pp. 

Schmincke, H.U. (2005) Volcanism. Springer, 324 pp.

Sigurdsson, H. (2015): Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Elsevier, 1456 pp.

Requirements to the exam
Last update: prof. RNDr. Jiří Žák, Ph.D. (16.02.2022)
Term paper/essay
Syllabus
Last update: prof. RNDr. Jiří Žák, Ph.D. (06.01.2022)

1. Magma, magmatic systems, and magmatic processes

1.1. Key concepts of crustal magmatism

1.2. The significance of magma viscosity and physical changes during crystallization

1.3. Migmatites and mechanisms of magma extraction in anatectic regions

1.4. Comparison of mafic and felsic systems and mafic–felsic magma interactions 

 

2. Magma in motion

2.1. Basic theoretical principles of magma flow and deformation

2.2. Dikes and diapirs as end-member ascent mechanisms

2.3. Introduction to fabric analysis of magmatic rocks and "granite tectonics" 

 

3. Architecture of magma plumbing systems

3.1. From bottom to top and from grain- to crustal-scale

3.2. Magma ascent pathways in the crust, magma mush columns

3.3. Geophysical imaging of subsurface magma bodies 

 

4. Pluton emplacement processes and construction of magma chambers

4.1. Key concepts of magma emplacement in the crust

4.2. Overview and discussion of various material transfer processes during magma emplacement

4.3. Magma chambers and their thermal and rheological evolution

4.4. Spatial and temporal distribution of melt in magma chambers 

 

5. Volcano-plutonic interface and structural record of volcanic eruptions 

5.1 Generation of eruptive melts from magma mush

5.2 Magma feeding paths at calderas and stratovolcanoes: dike swarms, cone sheets, and ring dikes

5.3 In search of vent locations and source calderas of voluminous ignimbrite sheets

 

6. Archean magmatism: making the continental crust

6.1. Models of continental crustal growth through time

6.2. The nature of Archean magmatism and mechanisms of generation of early granites

6.3. "Special events": TTG plutonism and its followers 

 

7. Continental margin arcs: inside the subduction factory, basaltic magma underplating, arc cyclicity

7.1 Manufacturing raw oceanic crust into basaltic melts to produce felsic arc magmas

7.2 Tempos and cycles of arc magmatism

7.3 Magmatic flare-ups, supervolcanoes, and supereruptions

 

8. Continental collisions, hot orogens, and granite plutonism

8.1. The nature of orogenic granites, models of magmatism in collisional orogens

8.2. Heat sources for orogenic plutonism

8.3. Crustal recycling and stabilization

Entry requirements
Last update: prof. RNDr. Jiří Žák, Ph.D. (05.01.2022)
A basic-level Physical Geology and Magmatic Petrology courses are necessary prerequisites.
 
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