SubjectsSubjects(version: 901)
Course, academic year 2022/2023
  
Xenobiochemistry - MC250P24
Title: Xenobiochemie
Czech title: Xenobiochemie
Guaranteed by: Department of Biochemistry (31-250)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2020
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech, English
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: RNDr. Věra Černá, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): RNDr. Věra Černá, Ph.D.
Opinion survey results   Examination dates   Schedule   
Annotation -
Last update: RNDr. Věra Černá, Ph.D. (17.02.2020)
The aim of the course is to make students familiar with the fate of xenobiotics in organisms. The course is a lecture useful for chemists and especially for biochemists. At first, essential informations on hydrophilic and hydrophobic xenobiotics is given. In addition, the fate of xenobiotics in organisms (entry to organisms, transport in organisms and into the cells, biotransformation, elimination, excretion) is shown in details. The students are also informed on pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics and the effects of hydrophilic and hydrophobic xenobiotics on the metabolic processes (target metabolic pathways for individual xenobiotics - e.g. heavy metals, air pollutants, car exhausts, industrial pollutants, drugs, potential toxicants, mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens). Metabolic conversion of xenobiotics in organisms (biotransformation - activation and detoxication) is shown in details. Namely, two phases of biotransformation: (i) derivatization and (ii) conjugation of xenobiotics, types of reactions involved in both phases of xenobiotic biotrasformation (oxidative, reductive, conjugative reactions, hydrolysis). Moreover, enzymes participating in xenobiotic biotransformation (the system of microsomal mixed function oxidases/oxygenases containing cytochromes P450 as terminal oxidases, microsomal monooxygenases containing flavine, peroxidases, reductases, amidases, esterases, epoxid hydrolase, UDP-glucuronoside transferase, sulphotransferases, glutathione-S-transferases, aminoacyltransferases) are trained in details, too. Finally, regulation of processes involved in xenobiotic biotransformation is shown.
Lectures - in Czech - and English
Lectures are delivered in Czech to Czech students. For Erasmus students the lectures are in English. Depending on the number of students enroled the course is arranged as lectures or in another way (colloquium, consultations).
Literature - Czech
Last update: RNDr. Věra Černá, Ph.D. (15.09.2021)

Voet D., Voet J.: Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1990.

Gibson, G. Gordon Skett, PaulIntroduction to drug metabolism . Cheltenham, UK: Nelson Thornes Publishers, 2001, 256 s. 

Testa B., Kramer S.D.: The biochemistry of Drug metabolism, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010.

Švihovec J., Bultas J., Anzenbacher P., Chládek J., Příborský J., Slíva J., Votava M.: Farmakologie, Grada publishing, a. s., 2018, zejména kapitola farmakokinetika

Skálová L., Boušová I., a kolektiv.: Metabolismus léčiv a jiných xenobiotik, Karolinum, 2011

Ioannides C.: Cytochromes P450Role in the Metabolism and Toxicity of Drugs and Other Xenobiotics, RSC publishing 2008

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: RNDr. Věra Černá, Ph.D. (29.09.2020)

The exam is written in the scope of the lectured material

Syllabus -
Last update: RNDr. Věra Černá, Ph.D. (29.09.2020)

For the time being, the lecture will be implemented remotely in the winter semester 2020/2021 due to epidemiological measures. 

1. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic xenobiotics

2. The fate of xenobiotics in organisms (entry to organisms, transport in organisms and into the cells, biotransformation, elimination, excretion)

3. Pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics

4. The effects of xenobiotics on metabolic processes (target metabolic pathways for individual xenobiotics - e.g. heavy metals, air and industrial pollutants, car exhausts, drugs, potential toxicants, mutagens, teratogens, carcinogens

5. Metabolic conversion of xenobiotics in organisms (activation, detoxication)

6. Two phases of biotransformation (derivatization, conjugation). Elimination of xenobiotics from cells

7. Types of reactions involved in both phases of biotransformation (oxidation, reduction, conjugation reactions, hydrolysis]

8. Enzymes participating in xenobiotics biotransformation (the system of microsomal mixed function oxidases/oxygenases containing cytochromes P450 as terminal oxidases, microsomal monooxygenases containing flavine, peroxidases, reductases, amidases, esterases, epoxid hydrolase, UDP-glucuronoside transferase, sulphotransferases, glutathione-S-transferases, aminoacyltransferases)

9. Regulation of xenobiotic biotrasformation



References
Voet D., Voet J.: Biochemistry, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1990.
Jindra A., Kovács P., Pšenák M., Šípal Z.: Biochémia. Molekularobiologické a farmaceutické aspekty Osveta. 1985.

 
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