SubjectsSubjects(version: 861)
Course, academic year 2019/2020
Evolution of vertebrates - MB170P43
Title: Evoluce obratlovců
Czech title: Evoluce obratlovců
Guaranteed by: Department of Zoology (31-170)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2019
Semester: summer
E-Credits: 3
Examination process: summer s.:
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Explanation: V letním semestru 2017/2018 proběhne turnusově. Termín bude zvolen po dohodě.
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Pavel Hulva, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): Mgr. Robert Černý, Ph.D.
prof. RNDr. Ivan Horáček, CSc.
doc. RNDr. Pavel Hulva, Ph.D.
Annotation -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Jakub Prokop, Ph.D. (10.05.2011)
Please note, the lectures are given in Czech language. English version of the course can be requested in advance
if there are at least 5 students.
This lesson represents synthesis of current knowledge about evolution of vertebrates. It is based on description of
both historical and recent biodiversity and explanation of mechanisms playing role in diversification of particular
groups. The lesson has multidisciplinary character involving phylogenetics, paleontology, morphology, genomics
and evolutionary developmental biology. Particular evidence are interpreted in ecological and biogeographical
Prerequisites: Introduction to evolutionary biology (MB170P55) or Evolutionary biology, Microevolution
(MB160P60), Morphology of animals (B170P46 nebo B170P46U).

Literature -
Last update: JPROKOP (21.04.2007)

Carroll, R.L., 1995: Patterns and processes of vertebrate evolution. Cambridge Paleobiology Series 2. Cambridge Univ. Press.

Jarvik, E., 1980: Basic Structure and Evolution of Vertebrates. 2 díly. Academic Press.

Roček, Z. 1985: Evoluce obratlovců. Academia, Praha.

Roček, Z. 2001: Historie obratlovců. Academia, Praha.

Requirements to the exam - Czech
Last update: doc. RNDr. Jakub Prokop, Ph.D. (03.05.2012)

Podmínkou pro úspěšné složení zkoušky je znalost látky v rozsahu přednášek.

Syllabus -
Last update: JPROKOP (21.04.2007)

Origins of vertebrates (review of theories, anatomical comparisons of echinoderm larvae, tunicates, and adult amphioxus with general scheme of agnathans, role of paedomorphosis in vertebrate origins, origin of neural tube, origin and significance of neural crest, origin of bone tissue and dentin, fossil record); transformations of viscerocranium (gill partitions in tunicates and acrania, gill arches in cyclostomes, gill arches in jawed vertebrates, structure of primitive gill arch and associated muscular system, origin of jaws and reduction of premandibular viscerocranium, transformations of viscerocranium in transition of vertebrates onto dry land, transformations of viscerocranium in terrestrial tetrapods); modifications of axial skeleton (origin of notochord, origin of sclerotom; parachordal section of skull, re-segmentation of sclerotom, origin of diplospondyl vertebra, replacement of notochord by vertebral centra, types of intervertebral articulation); origin of extremities (intersticial fins of acanthodians and Wolffian ridges, origin and transformation of shoulder and pelvic girdles, general scheme of girdle musculature, transformation of paired fins in transition of vertebrates onto dry land, origin of wings, differentiation of limb structure according to type of locomotion); changes in arrangement and differentiation of coelomic cavities (peribranchial cavity in primitive chordates, pericardial cavity, heart and circular system, transformations of circular system, transformations of excretory system, relations of excretory and reproductive systems, origin of pectoral cavity, pleuroperitoneal membrane); structural transformation in transition of vertebrates onto dry land, changes in ecology of their development (paleontological evidence, ecological aspects, paleogeography in the Devonian, anatomical prerequisities, transformations of respective organ systems, evolution of modern amphibians); origin of amniote egg and evolution of exocranium (Anamnia x Amniota in structure of egg, developmental consequences, anatomical differences between Anthracosauria and early reptiles, modifications of exocranium due to increasing size of masticatory muscles, origin of secondary mouth palate); significance of thermoregulation in vertebrate evolutionm (ectothermy, poikilothermy, thermoregulatory mechanisms, endothermy, homeothermy, anatomical evidence for endothermy, independent origins of endothermy in various phylogenetic lineages); evolution of nervous system (rostral prolongation of neural tube, embryonic differentiation of CNS, division of brain in primitive vertebratesseconf period of rostral prolongation, origin of telencephalon and extension of hemispheres, cranial nerves and their modifications, contribution of spinal chord to brain increase in amniotes); hominization (comparative anatomy of primates, changes in structure and proportions of brain, their reflection in cranial ctructure, position of the occipital foramen and bipedal locomotion, spine curvature, paleontological evidence).

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