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Course, academic year 2019/2020
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Introduction to Polar Ecology - MB162P27
Title in English: Introduction to Polar Ecology
Czech title: Úvod do polární ekologie
Guaranteed by: Department of Ecology (31-162)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2015
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Examination process: winter s.:written
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Linda Nedbalová, Ph.D.
doc. RNDr. Josef Elster, CSc.
Teacher(s): doc. RNDr. Josef Elster, CSc.
doc. RNDr. Linda Nedbalová, Ph.D.
doc. Daniel Nývlt, Ph.D.
Annotation -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Linda Nedbalová, Ph.D. (07.09.2014)
Introduction to polar ecology presents a basic overview of environmental/biological diversity and adaptations of organisms to environmental conditions in polar ecosystems. It introduces all basic scientific disciplines involved in ecological research in polar regions. The lecturers have a long-term experience with field research both in the Arctic and Antarctic.
Literature -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Linda Nedbalová, Ph.D. (07.09.2014)

Avila-Jimenez ML et al. (2010) Overwintering of terrestrial Arctic arthropods: the fauna of Svalbard now and in the future. Polar Research 29: 127-137.

Beyer L. and Boelter M. (eds.) (2002) GeoEcology of Terrestrial Oases Ecological Studies, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Callaghan TV et al. (2005) Arctic Tundra and Polar Desert Ecosystems 243 - 353. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.  CambridgeUniversity Press pp. 1039.

Campbell B, Claridge GGC (1987) Antarctica: soils, weathering processes and environment. Cambridge.

       CaptusUniversity Press.  Toronto.  268 pp..

Chapin, S.F. Jefferies, R.L. Raynolds J. Shaver, G.R and Svoboda J. (1992) Climatic Change and Arctic Ecosystem Response.  The role of Ecophysiology.  Academic Press 469 pp.

Crawford RMM (1989) Plant studies to survival. Blackwell Scientific Publications.

Crawford RMM (2008) Plants at the margins. Ecological limits and climatic change. CambridgeUniversity press.

Davie T (2008) Fundamentals of hydrology. London : Routledge, 200 s.

DeWalle DR and  Rango A (2008) Principles of Snow Hydrology, CambridgeUniversity Press; 420 s.

Elias SA (Ed.) (2006) Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science.

Elverland E. (2008) The Arctic System. Norvegian Polar Institute, 203 pp.

Evans DJA and Benn DI (2004) A Practical Guide to the Study of Glacial Sediments. 266 p.,

Fogg GE (1998) The biology of polar habitats. OxfordUniversity Press, Oxford

French HM (2007) The Periglacial Environment. Third Edition. 478 p., Wiley, Chichester

Friedmann EI (ed.) (1993) Antarctic microbiology. Wiley-Liss, NewYork

Fuller B,  Lane N. and Benson EE (eds.) (2004) Life In The Frozen State. Taylor and Francis, London, pp. 111- 149.

Gale SJ, Hoare PG (1991) Quaternary Sediments. Petrographic Methods for the Study of Unlithified Rocks. 323 p., Belhaven, London

Gulliksen B. and Svensen E. (2004) Svalbard and Life in the Polar Oceans. Norvegian Polar Institute, 65 pp.

Hubbard B. and Glasser N. (2005) Field Techniques in Glaciology and Glacial geomorphology. 400 p., Wiley, ISBN 0-9544060-2-8, 608 pp

Kovac KM and Lydersen C. (2006) Birds and Mammals of Svalbard. Norvegian Polar Institute, 203 pp

Last WM et al. (2001) Tracking Environmental Change Using LakeSediments. Volume 3: Terrestrial, Algal, and Siliceous Indicators.

Last WM. Et al. (2001) Tracking Environmental Change Using LakeSediments. Volume 4: Zoological Indicators.

Moen FM. and Svensen E. (2004) Marine Fish & Invertebrates of Northern Europe KOM Forlag, 608 pp

Netopil R. (1984) Fyzická geografie. I., Hydrologie, limnologie, oceánografie. Praha : Státní pedagogické nakladatelství, n.p., 258 s.

Pielou EC (1992) After the Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. The University of Chicago Press (Google books)

Pielou EC (1994) Naturalists guide to the Arctic. The University of Chicago Press (Google books)

Singh P. (2001) Snow and Glacier Hydrology, Springer, 756 s.

Svoboda, J. and Freedman, B.  (1994)  Ecology of a polar oasis, Alexandra Fiord. 

Tedrow JCF (1977) Soils of the polar landscapes. RutgersUniversity Press, New

Tucker ME (2003) Sedimentary Rocks in the Field. Third Edition. 234 p., Wiley, Chichester

Vincent WF (1988) Microbial ecosystem of Antarctica. CambridgeUniversity Press,

Vincent WF, Laybourn-Parry J. (eds.) (2008) Polar Lakes and Rivers: Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems. Oxford University Press.

Syllabus -
Last update: doc. RNDr. Linda Nedbalová, Ph.D. (07.09.2014)
  1. Origins and evolution of polar regions (plate tectonics, glacial periods, fossils as evidence of climatic and environmental changes. History of discovery, exploration and research in the polar regions.

  2. Glacial cycles (factors influencing changing of warm and cold periods), changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation, origin and evolutions of glaciation in polar regions, proxy data from ice cores, fundamentals of glaciology and glacier typology, hydrological cycle.

  3. Polar climate (distribution and circulation of air masses, temperature and precipitation courses, ozone anomaly, microclimate and vegetation microclimate, climate change, methods of study of current and past climate).

  4. Rocks and soils (origins and evolution of periglacial environment, permafrost, active layer, ground ice, periglacial processes - regelation,  frost weathering, patterned ground, mass movements, influence of snow and vegetation, soil crusts, cryptoendolitic communities).

  5. Comparison of Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems (energy exchange between temperate zone and Arctic/Antarctic Region, dispersal of organism to newly deglaciated areas).

  6. Ecology of polar oceans and seas (ocean currents, polynias, Antarctic Divergence and Convergence, productivity of polar ocean ecosystem, benthic and pelagic assemblages, life in sea ice, primary and secondary producers of polar seas, parasites and symbionts of invertebrates and vertebrates).

  7. Freshwater ecosystems (lakes, seepages, creeks and streams, life on glacial surfaces, cryoconite, lake typology in polar regions and their evolution, food webs in polar lakes, comparison of Arctic and Antarctica).

  8. Cyanobacteria and algae and their adaptations to polar environment (dominant taxonomic groups in different habitats, adaptations to extreme environment, psychrophiles and psychrotrophs, endemism).

  9. Vascular plants and their adaptations to polar environment (tundra, tree line, length of vegetation period, polar desert, peatbogs, Antarctic plant communities, evolution of vegetation in postglacial period, phytogeography, morphological and physiological adaptations of plants).

  10. Animals and their adaptations to polar environment (overview of the main taxonomic groups of terrestrial, freshwater and sea fauna, metabolic and physiological adaptations, food pyramids, autochtonic and allochtonic nutrient sources, food web relationships).

  11. Vulnerability of polar nature and its legal protection (Antarctic Treaty, Svalbard Treaty - conservation principles in the Arctic and Antarctica).

  12. Organisation of research in polar regions. Arctic indigenous people.

 
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