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Course, academic year 2019/2020
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Neurobiology - MB150P36
Title in English: Neurobiologie
Czech title: Neurobiologie
Guaranteed by: Department of Physiology (31-152)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2013
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0 Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Guarantor: doc. RNDr. Jiří Novotný, DSc.
Teacher(s): doc. RNDr. Zdeňka Bendová, Ph.D.
doc. RNDr. Jiří Novotný, DSc.
Attributes: Modul Fyziologie a anatomie / morfologie
Annotation -
Last update: PUTA (21.03.2006)
Please note, the lectures are given in czech language only.

Neurobiology is an interdisciplinary field integrating modern knowledge about nerve cells, and the ways in which they are organized into functional circuits to form nervous systems which mediate animal behaviour. Facultative course for baccalaureate degree of the study program biology. Recommended in the 3rd year for students who plan to continue on the Mgr. degree in the neurobiology or animal physiology. The compulsory part of the course is the "Seminar on neuroanatomy" (B150S05).
Literature - Czech
Last update: PUTA (08.04.2004)

Nicholls J.G. et al.: From neuron to brain, Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, USA, Third edition, 1992.

Vyklický L. a Vyskočil F.: Molekulární podstata dráždivosti nervového systému. Skriptum, Přírodovědecká fakulta UK Praha, 1993.

Smith, C.U.M.: Elements of Molecular Neurobiology, John Wiley & Sons, England, Third edition, 2002

Requirements to the exam - Czech
Last update: RNDr. Daniela Horníková, Ph.D. (06.04.2012)

Předmět je ukončen písemným testem.

Syllabus -
Last update: PUTA (08.04.2004)

INTRODUCTION AND BASIC TERM. Neurobiology and special branches of neuroscience: neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuroendocrinology, neuropharmacology, neurology, neuropsychology, neurosurgery, neuroetology etc. Morphology and physiology of neural cells, bioelectric signals, reflexes, behavior.

MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF NEURONAL SIGNALISATION. Membrane theory of bioelectric events, ionic channels, ionic basis of the resting membrane potential, action potential, and synaptic potentials.

NEURONS AS CONDUCTORS of electricity. Passive electrical properties of nerve membrane, local and propagated signals, nerve fibre diameter, myelinisation and conduction velocity of action potential, pathways for current flow between cells.

Properties and functions of neuroglial cells. Appearance and classification of glial cells, physiological properties of neuroglial cell membranes, a signaling systems from neurons to glial cells, function of neuroglial cells.

PRINCIPLES OF SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION. Electrical synapses, chemical synapses, release of chemical transmitters, synthesis and store of neurotransmitters, synaptic vesicles recyclation, receptors for different classes of neurotransmitters, identification and function of neurotransmitters in central nervous system, synaptic excitation and synaptic inhibition.

MODEL SYNAPSE - NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION (NMJ, END-PLATE). Structure of neuromuscular junction, acetylcholine receptors, acetylcholinestherase, release of acetylcholine. Pharmacology of the NMJ, presynaptic and postsynaptic ways of modulation of the functional state of the end-plate.

Synapses in the central nervous system (CNS). Receptors and mediators in CNS, structure and function of Gray synapses (type 1 and 2). Post-synaptic inhibition and facilitation. Modulation of synaptic activity in CNS.

NEUROTRANSMITTERS, NEUROMODULATORS AND MECHANISMS OF THEIR ACTION. Membrane receptors classification, ionotropic and metabotropic receptors,

Na+, K+-ATPase - receptor for cardioactive glycosides, effectors of hormonal action, second messengers.


Development of the nervous system, individual neurons, ganglions, target organs, sensory cells and receptive fields, motor cells, synapses, and reflexes.

INTEGRATIVE MECHANISMS - TRANSDUCTION AND PROCESSING OF SENSORY SIGNALS IN VERTEBRATES. Process of sensory mapping: excitation of peripheral sensory receptors, transduction and transformation of energy of sensory stimuli to electrical signals, afferent sensory pathways, receptive fields of sensory neurons, divergency and convergency of sensory signals, lateral inhibition, and efferent control of sensory inputs. Sensory modalities, example: visual system.

INTEGRATIVE MECHANISMS - MOTOR SYSTEMS - SKELETAL MUSLCE CONTROL. Motoneurons, motor unit, spinal reflexes, motor pathways in CNS, brain stem, cerebellum (little brain), basal ganglia, neocortex, motor programs.

INTEGRATIVE MECHANISMS - INTERACTIONS OF NERVOUS, ENDOCRINE AND IMMUNNE SYSTEMS. Receptors and chemical compounds mediating feed-back mechanisms of mutual interactions of these three basic integrative systems of the body cooperating in the control of growth, development, homeostasis, and behavior of the individual.

NEUROBIOLOGICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOUR. Biorythms, inherited forms of behaviour, unconditioned reflexes, instincts, food intake, reproduction, emotions, learning, and memory. Neuroetology.

NEUROBIOLOGY AND MEDICAL SCIENCES. Interaction of neurons under physiological and pathological conditions, hereditary factors, effect of the environment, regeneration of nervous system, medication and drugs affecting neural cells, neurology, psychopharmacology.

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