SubjectsSubjects(version: 928)
Course, academic year 2022/2023
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Principles of Genetics - MB140P16
Title: Základy genetiky
Czech title: Základy genetiky
Guaranteed by: Department of Genetics and Microbiology (31-140)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2020 to 2022
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 3
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:3/0, Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Level: basic
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: RNDr. Michaela Schierová, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): RNDr. Radka Reifová, Ph.D.
RNDr. Michaela Schierová, Ph.D.
Incompatibility : MB140P17
Is incompatible with: MB140P17
In complex pre-requisite: MB110P99
Annotation -
Last update: RNDr. Radka Reifová, Ph.D. (14.12.2013)
The course is focused on main topics of genetics from both the traditional and molecular biology point of view. Some
additional topics, e.g. usage of DNA polymorfism in gene mapping and molecular taxonomy, genetics of sex development
and genetics of speciation are discussed. Please note, the lectures are given in Czech language only.
Literature -
Last update: RNDr. Irena Lichá, CSc. (12.05.2009)

Klug W.S., Cummings M.R., Spencer C.: Concepts of Genetics (8th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2006.

Snustad D.P., Simmons M.J.: Principles of Genetics (4th ed.). John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2006.

Russell P.J.: i-Genetics: A Mendelian Approach. Pearson Education, Inc., and Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2006.

Griffiths A.J.F., Wessler S.R., Lewontin R.C., Gelbart W.M., Suzuki D.T., Miller J.H.: Introduction to Genetic Analysis (8th ed.). W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, NY, USA, 2005.

Requirements to the exam
Last update: RNDr. Michaela Schierová, Ph.D. (23.10.2019)

The test is in the form of a written test. The Test includes 17 questions that evenly cover the topics discussed, and 5 examples. Individual tasks are evaluated by a mark, each acquainitute has the same weight. Up to a total average of 1.6 reviews excellently, until 2.3 very well, until 2.9 well. The second correction term is orally.

Syllabus -
Last update: RNDr. Irena Lichá, CSc. (12.05.2009)

Genetic Terminology :Traits, genes and alleles. The structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes. Dominance and recessivity. Multiallelic genes. Genotype and phenotype. Homozygote and heterozygote. Expressivity and penetrance. Pleiotropy.

DNA sequences : Classification according to product, copy number and location in the cell. Nuclear and extranuclear genes. Chromosomes and plasmids. Single copy and repetitive DNA sequences. Multigene families. Repetitive DNA sequences - usage in molecular taxonomy.

Model organisms : From viruses to mammals. Genome size, specific features and the main contribution to genetics.

Principles of cytogenetics: Nukleus, mitosis and meiosis. Chromosomes: structure, composition and size. Euchromatin and heterochromatin. Homologous chromosomes, autosomes and sex chromosomes. Karyotypes. Electrophoretic karyotypes. Chromosomal mutations: number and structure disorders. Chromosome staining and chromosome banding techniques. Hybridisation in situ. Polyploidy.

Transmission genetics : Mendel's laws. Correlation to meiosis. Parental and filial generations. Types of crosses. Genotypic and phenotypic ratios. Gene interactions: biochemical explanation. Modification of phenotypic ratios. Sex linked genes. Sex limited and sex influenced inheritance. Statistical analysis of genetic data. Pedigree analysis.

Genetic control of sex determinativ: Conjugation in bacteria. Yeast MAT locus. Incompatibility in basidiomycete fungi. Haplodiploid sex determination. Chromosomal sex determination. Sex chromosome evolution in humans. Variations in sex chromosome number. Lyonisation and Xist locus. Dosage compensation: inactivation or hyperactivation. Y chromosome. SRY.

Gene linkage: Parental and recombinant gametes. Cis and trans linkage. Correlation to meiosis. Crossing over. Morgan and Bateson ratios. Test crosses. Estimation of phenotypic ratios, determination of linear order of linked genes. LOD score. Alternative ways to map human genes.

Extranuclear inheritance : Chloroplasts and mitochondria: common features, gene content. Endosymbiotic theory. Interaction organelle vs nucleus.

Mutations and mutagenes : Classification of mutations. Induction and selection, usage in experimental biology. Site directed mutagenesis, RNA interference. Classification of mutagens. Evaluation of mutagen activity. Repair systems. Mutagens and cancerogens. Transposable elements.

Gene expression and development :Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes - concise information. Tissue specific polyploidy and polytenie. Immunogenetics - B lymphocyte differentiation, genes encoding for T antigenes and MHC antigenes. Oncogenetics - cellular (proto)oncogenes and tumor supressor genes. Epigenetics, DNA methylation, histone acetylation, imprinting. Quantitative genetics - genetic contribution to phenotypic variability. Analytical methods. Control of development. Apoptosis.

Population and evolutionary genetics : Different approaches of classical and population genetics. Modern synthesis. Evolution in terms of changes in allele frequencies. Panmictic population. Effective population size. Methods for detection of genetic polymorphism.Hardy-Weinberg principle. Inbreeding. Mechanisms changing allele frequencies in population. Genetic drift, selection, evolutionary drives. Linkage disequilibrium. Neutral theory and theory of coalescence. Probability of fixation of mutation. Average time to fixation of mutation. Substitution rate. Polymomorphism within species and divergence between species. How to measure polymorphism and divergence. Molecular clocks. Relationship between molecular and phenotypic evolution. Genetics of speciation. Species concepts? Reproduction isolation mechanisms. Intrinsic and extrinsic reproductive isolation. Role of sex chromosomes in speciation. Allopatric/parapatric/sympatric speciation. Speciation via polyploidization and hybridization.

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