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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Plant physiology - MB130P14
Title: Fyziologie rostlin
Czech title: Fyziologie rostlin
Guaranteed by: Department of Experimental Plant Biology (31-130)
Faculty: Faculty of Science
Actual: from 2018
Semester: summer
E-Credits: 4
Examination process: summer s.:
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:3/0, Ex [HT]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: 5
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Additional information: https://dl2.cuni.cz/course/index.php?categoryid=11
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: prof. RNDr. Jana Albrechtová, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): prof. RNDr. Jana Albrechtová, Ph.D.
RNDr. Lukáš Fischer, Ph.D.
RNDr. Jan Petrášek, Ph.D.
Incompatibility : MB130P14E
Is incompatible with: MB130P13, MB130P14E
Is pre-requisite for: MB130P18E
Annotation -
The lecture offers general survey of processes in plants at the cellular, organ, organism and canopy level. It deals with plant growth and development emphasizing the role of phytohormones. It presents basic knowledge on basis of photosynthesis, respiration, mineral nutrition and water relation. It describes the effects of external factors on plants with special emphasis on both biotic and abiotic stresses. It presents information on physiological principles of yield formation. It deals with problems of the protection of environment. It presents the basic knowledge of plant propagation.
Last update: Albrechtová Jana, prof. RNDr., Ph.D. (23.02.2009)
Literature -

Recent editions:

Salisbury F.B., Ross C.W.: Plant Physiology.

Taiz L., Zeiger E.: Plant Physiology.

 Buchanan B.B., Gruissem W., Jones R.L.: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Plants.

The list of recent recommended literature will be available during the lectures.

Last update: Konrádová Hana, RNDr., Ph.D. (29.10.2019)
Requirements to the exam - Czech

Způsob klasifikace kurzu: B130P14

Známka za absolvování kurzu Fyziologie rostlin B130P14 pro odbornou biologii se skládá z několika součástí:

1. Semestrální test po první části kurzu, tj. na přednášce v priblizne polovině semestru. Nutnou podmínkou pro připuštění ke zkoušce je složit semestrální test nad stanovený limit 54% (pak odpovídá klasifikaci dobře). Za semestrální test je možno obdržet maximálně 100 procent. Klasifikace semestrálního testu: Test v semestru je ve formě 25 otázek a zaškrtávání 1 správné ze 4 odpovědí. Každá otázka odpovídá 4 bodům - maximálně je tedy možné získat 100 bodů. Semestrálním testem je možné získat bonus pro zkouškový test: 100-85: +8 bodů pro zkouškový test; 84-70: +4 body pro zkouškový test; 69-55: +0 bodů pro zkouškový test; méně než 54%: nutno psát test znovu.

2. Zkouškový test: ve zkušebním termínu.

Zkouškový test Zkouškový test je pouze formou otázek (celkem 25 po 4 bodech) a je třeba vypsat odpověď, či nakreslít schéma, požadovaný graf (není nabízena odpověď).

K celkovému počtu bodů získaných při závěrečném testu (maximálně 100 bodů) se připočítávají body získané za semestrální test v rozsahu 0-8% dle výsledků ze semestrálního testu. Výborně: 100-85; Velmi dobře: 84-70; Dobře: 69-55.

Last update: Albrechtová Jana, prof. RNDr., Ph.D. (12.11.2011)
Syllabus -

1. Plant physiology as part of experimental botany. Special features of plants among living organisms. Characteristics of basic plant structure. Hierarchical structure of plants. History of plant physiology.

2. Plant growth regulators and phytohormones. Differences between plant and animal hormones. Auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, ethylene, abscissic acid. Synthesis, translocation and effects of individual phytohormones, their role in the interaction between plants and their environment. Use of phytohormones and groth regulators in conventional agriculture and plant biotechnologies.

3. Photosynthesis 1: its role on the planet. Radiation energy, Stefan-Boltzmann law and Wienś displacement law. Physiological effects of individual plant spectral regions. Photoautotrophy and heterotrophy. Energy balance of a leaf. Photosynthetic structures. Radiation energy and carbon dioxide fixation. Photorespiration. C3, C4 and CAM plants.

4. Photosynthesis 2:The effects of both external and internal factors on the rate of photosynthesis. Growth analysis. Crop productivity. CO2 concentration and global climate change. Translocation and allocation of photosynthate. Source and sink.

5. Respiration: Mitochondria, Krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, cyanide resistant respiration. Growth and maintenance respiration. Growth efficiency. Respiration and photosynthesis.

6. Water relations: Water content in plants, water saturation deficiency. Physical properties of water. Adhesion and cohesion. Water potential and its components (osmotic, pressure, gravimetric, matric). Soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Transpiration as diffusion of water vapour. Stomata and the effects on their opening and closing.

7. Mineral nutrition. Elemental composition of plant dry matter. Uptake, transport and utilization of the most important mineral elements.. Atmospheric nitrogen fixation. Leaf analysis and nutrient deficiency symptoms. Fertilizers and their importance in crop production.

8. Growth and development. Life cycle of plant cells. Growth phases: division, differentiation, elongation, senescence, death. Cell, tissue and organ differentiation. Developmental phases. Bud, seed and fruit dormancy. Receptors of red, blue and ultraviolet light. Phytochrom. Vegetative and reproductive development. Photoperiodism. Vernalization. Floral initiation.. Molecular biological aspects of flowering.

9. Plant movements. Molecular-cellular basis of unicellular and multicellular movement of organisms. Physical and vital plant organ movements. Tropism, nastie.

10. Stress physiology. Abiotic and biotic stress.. Interaction between host plant and pathogen. Mykorhiza. The effects of temperature extremes, oxygen deficiency, salination. Heavy metals and aluminium toxicity. Resistance and tolerance. Stress proteins. Bioremediation. Allelopathy. Phytoalexines, phytoanticipines. Programmed cell death and its role in plant life.

11. Vegetative and generative plant propagation in vivo and in vitro. Plant regeneration x cell theory (Schleiden, Schwann). Methodology of tissue and cell culture, plant biotechnologies. Practical use of in vitro cultures in breeding. Genetically modified organisms : prospects, profits and risk assessment.

12. Practical courses: Principles and interpretation of methodical processes trained in practical course.

Last update: VOTRUB (22.05.2003)
 
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