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Course, academic year 2022/2023
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Politics and Effects of Mega-Events - JPM855
Title: Politics and Effects of Mega-Events
Guaranteed by: Department of International Relations (23-KMV)
Faculty: Faculty of Social Sciences
Actual: from 2022 to 2022
Semester: winter
E-Credits: 4
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:2/0, MC [HT]
Capacity: 20 / unknown (20)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Note: course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: Dr. rer. pol. Michal Parízek, M.Sc., Ph.D.
Teacher(s): Dr. rer. pol. Michal Parízek, M.Sc., Ph.D.
Annotation
Last update: Dr. rer. pol. Michal Parízek, M.Sc., Ph.D. (14.09.2022)
This course is taught by David Knoll, visiting lecturer from the Department of Politics and Public Administration; University of Konstanz, Germany.

Large societal events from sports and culture affect millions of citizens at the same time and develop effects far beyond the borders of the hosting nations. Despite their broad appeal, “mega-events” like World Cups, Olympic Games, or European Capitals of Culture have only started to attract attention from political scientists and scholars of International Relations. Because of their scope and their potential for strategic use (and misuse) on the national and international stage, it is important to understand the politics and international repercussions of these events.
To this end, the present three-day block course is structured as follows: First, we take a closer look at the different types of events and their specific features. During day two, we consider how elites use mega-events strategically. Among other things, mega-events can serve as instruments of soft power projection, tools to generate legitimacy among the population as well as among other states, or present venues for protest on a national and international scale. On the last day, we focus on the international repercussions and socio-economic effects of mega-events. In doing so, we will not only cover empirical evidence from political science, but also take a look at the diverse work from neighbouring disciplines.
Course completion requirements
Last update: Dr. rer. pol. Michal Parízek, M.Sc., Ph.D. (14.09.2022)

If you want to obtain ECTS for the course, you need to hand in an academic essay of about 3000 words (~10 pages without references) as a PDF document via E-mail to the instructor. Please use double-space and a standard font type. You are free to choose a topic that interests you, but it has to relate to some sort of mega-event. If you are unsure, you can check with the instructor.

 

As you are writing an academic essay, you should…

·       Present a clear question and argument of societal and scientific relevance

·       Persuade the reader of an idea using evidence.

·       Be logically coherent and clearly structured (“Red Thread”).

·       Develop a theoretical argument (from the course literature and using further literature).

·       Elaborate on the argument using more literature and/or small case studies, i.e. use case example(s) to illustrate your argument. Comparative approaches are welcome.

·       Critically reflect the weaknesses of the own position and addresses counterarguments.

·       Clearly define the terms and concepts you use.

·       Not only provide a summary of the literature but use it to develop your thoughts and arguments.

·       Watch out for readability, including clear layout, correct orthography (spell check and proof-read your work!) and correct grammar (within reasonable bounds, as we are of course non-native English speakers).

 

The essay must be the result of your own independent work. Plagiarism, the use of automatic text generation tools, and any other practices which render the above statement untrue are not allowed and result in failing the course. Non-plagiarism also entails acknowledging all sources, which implies citing them correctly!

Literature
Last update: Dr. rer. pol. Michal Parízek, M.Sc., Ph.D. (14.09.2022)

You do not need to read these for the sessions, but some of these might be useful for your essays…

Arnold, R. (2021). Nationalism and sport: A review of the field. Nationalities Papers49(1), 2-11.

Bairner, A. (2001). Sport, nationalism, and globalization: European and North American perspectives. Suny Press.

Baker, C. (2017). The ‘gay Olympics’? The Eurovision song contest and the politics of LGBT/European belonging. European Journal of International Relations23(1), 97-121.

Blangiardo, M., & Baio, G. (2014). Evidence of bias in the Eurovision song contest: modelling the votes using Bayesian hierarchical models. Journal of Applied Statistics41(10), 2312-2322.

Boyle, P., & Haggerty, K. D. (2009). Spectacular security: Mega-events and the security complex. International Political Sociology3(3), 257-274.

Brownell, S. (2012). Human rights and the Beijing Olympics: imagined global community and the transnational public sphere 1. The British journal of sociology63(2), 306-327.

Cornelissen, S. (2012). ‘Our struggles are bigger than the World Cup’: civic activism, state‐society relations and the socio‐political legacies of the 2010 FIFA World Cup 1. The British journal of sociology63(2), 328-348.

Cottrell, M. P., & Nelson, T. (2011). Not just the Games? Power, protest and politics at the Olympics. European Journal of International Relations17(4), 729-753.

Fage-Butler, A. (2020). Audience perspectives on the European dimension in Aarhus 2017 events: impacts of EU cultural policy. International Journal of Cultural Policy26(2), 150-165.

Garcia, B. (2017). ‘If everyone says so …’ Press narratives and image change in major event host cities. Urban Studies, 54(14), 3178–3198.

Giulianotti, R., & Klauser, F. (2010). Security governance and sport mega-events: Toward an interdisciplinary research agenda. Journal of Sport and Social issues34(1), 49-61.

Gogishvili, D. (2021). Urban infrastructure in the framework of mega-event exceptionalism: Glasgow and the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Urban Geography, 1-24.

Gomes, P., & Librero-Cano, A. (2018). Evaluating three decades of the European Capital of Culture programme: a difference-in-differences approach. Journal of Cultural Economics, 42(1), 57–73.

Gursoy, D., & Kendall, K. W. (2006). Hosting mega events: Modelling locals’ support. Annals of tourism research33(3), 603-623.

Hagn, F., & Maennig, W. (2008). Employment effects of the Football World Cup 1974 in Germany. Labour economics, 15(5), 1062 - 1075.

Herrero, L. C., Sanz, J. Á., Devesa, M., Bedate, A., & Del Barrio, M. J. (2006). The economic impact of cultural events: a case-study of Salamanca 2002, European Capital of Culture. European Urban and Regional Studies, 13(1), 41–57.

Lähdesmäki, T. (2013). Cultural activism as a counter-discourse to the European Capital of Culture programme: The case of Turku 2011. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 16(5), 598–619.

Matheson, V. A., Schwab, D., & Koval, P. (2018). Corruption in the bidding, construction and organisation of mega-events: An analysis of the Olympics and World Cup. In M. Breuer and Forrest, D. (Eds.) The Palgrave Handbook on the economics of manipulation in sport (pp. 257-278). Palgrave Macmillan.

Mills, B. M., & Rosentraub, M. S. (2013). Hosting mega-events: A guide to the evaluation of development effects in integrated metropolitan regions. Tourism Management34, 238-246.

Minnaert, L. (2012). An Olympic legacy for all? The non-infrastructural outcomes of the Olympic Games for socially excluded groups (Atlanta 1996–Beijing 2008). Tourism management33(2), 361-370.

Müller, M. (2015). The mega-event syndrome: Why so much goes wrong in mega-event planning and what to do about it. Journal of the American Planning Association81(1), 6-17.

Müller, M., Wolfe, S. D., Gaffney, C., Gogishvili, D., Hug, M., & Leick, A. (2021). An evaluation of the sustainability of the Olympic Games. Nature sustainability4(4), 340-348.

Palmer, R., Richards, G., & Dodd, D. (2007). European cultural capital report. Arnheim: ATLAS.

Patel, K. K. (2013). The Cultural Politics of Europe. London: Routledge

Patel, K. K. (2013). Integration by Interpellation: The European Capitals of Culture and the Role of Experts in European Union Cultural Policies. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 51(3), 538–554.

Richards, G., Brito, M. P., & Wilks, L. (2013). Exploring the social impacts of events (pp. 15-30). London: Routledge.

Robinson, J. (2013). Folkloric Modernism–Venice’s Giardini della Biennale and the Geopolitics of Architecture’. Open Arts Journal2, 1-24.

Rose, A. K., & Spiegel, M. M. (2011). The Olympic Effect. The Economic Journal, 121(553), 652–677.

Sassatelli, M. (2002). Imagined Europe: The Shaping of a European Cultural Identity Through EU Cultural Policy. European Journal of Social Theory, 5(4), 435–451.

Steiner, L., Frey, B., & Hotz, S. (2015). European capitals of culture and life satisfaction. Urban Studies, 52(2), 374–394.

Strenk, A. (1979). What price victory? The world of international sports and politics. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science445(1), 128-140.

Vaczi, M., Bairner, A., & Whigham, S. (2020). Where extremes meet: Sport, nationalism, and secessionism in Catalonia and Scotland. Nations and Nationalism26(4), 943-959.

Van Ham, P. (2001). The rise of the brand state: The postmodern politics of image and reputation. Foreign affairs, 2-6.

Žilič-Fišer, S., & Erjavec, K. (2017). The political impact of the European Capital of Culture: 'Maribor 2012 gave us the power to change the regime'. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 23(5), 581–596.

Teaching methods
Last update: Dr. rer. pol. Michal Parízek, M.Sc., Ph.D. (14.09.2022)

This seminar tries to create a productive learning environment for everybody – please get in touch with me in case you encounter problems. Attendance, preferably in person, is mandatory.

Syllabus
Last update: Dr. rer. pol. Michal Parízek, M.Sc., Ph.D. (01.11.2022)

DAY 1: INTRODUCTION AND TYPES OF MEGA-EVENTS

  • Introduction and organizational aspects
  • What is a mega-event and what is political about them

Readings:

  • Müller, M. (2015). What makes an event a mega-event? Definitions and sizes. Leisure studies, 34(6), 627-642.

DAY 2: MEGA-EVENTS: STRATEGIC USE AND MISUSE

  • Mega-Events as Legitimizing tools: the case of the 1936 Berlin Olympic games
  • Mega-Events and soft power projection

Readings:

  • Large, D. C. (2012). Nazi Games. The Olympics of 1936. NY: WW Norton & Company. Chapters 2, 3 (p. 49-109).
  • Grix, J., & Lee, D. (2013). Soft power, sports mega-events and emerging states: The lure of the politics of attraction. Global society, 27(4), 521-536.
  • If you don’t know the Soft Power classic: Nye, J. S. (1990). Soft power. Foreign policy, (80), 153-171.

DAY 3: EFFECTS OF MEGA-EVENTS

  • An overview of effects on the economy, trade, image, society, and nationalism

Readings:

  • Scharpf, A., Gläßel, C., & Edwards, P. (2022). International Sports Events and Repression in Autocracies: Evidence from the 1978 FIFA World Cup. American Political Science Review, online first.
  • Bertoli, A. D. (2017). Nationalism and conflict: Lessons from international sports. International Studies Quarterly61(4), 835-849.
 
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