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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Introduction to Cell Biology - GB275
Title: Úvod do buněčné biologie
Guaranteed by: Department of Biological and Medical Sciences (16-16150)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2022
Semester: winter
Points: 0
E-Credits: 5
Examination process: winter s.:written
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:28/14, C+Ex [HS]
Capacity: unlimited / 90 (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Note: course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D.
Interchangeability : GB251
Is co-requisite for: GB194, GB019, GB276, GB277
Is pre-requisite for: GB312, GB085, GB280, GB200
Annotation -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)
The main goal of Introduction to Cell Biology is to reveal to the students how the living cell works and teach them how to handle the microscope. Both will give them the background for the subjects in the upcoming years. For that, we introduce them to the structure and function of every single compartment of the cell and its chemical composition. Other areas such as cell communication, cell division, and regulation of the cell cycle are studied. Themes: Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, membranes, membrane organelles, DNA and chromosomes, cell communication, cell cycle, reproduction of organisms.
Course completion requirements -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)

To obtain the Credit from Practical classes it is necessary to meet following conditions: 100% presence in all practical classes (with regards to the COVID-19 situation), deliver the filled-in Laboratory manual to be checked (part of the final evaluation), practical part - to perform one of the tasks from the previous practical classes (fill in the protocol) and answer 3 theoretical questions from practical classes.


Literature - Czech
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)



  • Nečas, Oldřich. Obecná biologie. Jinočany: H & H, 2000, 554 s. ISBN 80-86022-46-3.

Syllabus -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)

Cell structure

·         definition and general characteristics of cell (cell theory)

·         structure of prokaryotic cell

·         structure of eukaryotic cell (plant and animal)


Chemical composition of living systems

·         water and inorganic substances

·         low molecular weight organic molecules: saccharides, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, phospholipids

·         high molecular weight organic molecules: polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids


Nucleic acids and chromosomes I

·         structure of DNA

·         chromosome structure in prokaryotes and viruses

·         chromosome structure in eukaryotes


Nucleic acids and chromosomes II

·         replication

·         transcription

·         translation


Membranes I

·      membrane structure

o   lipid bilayer

o   molecular structure of membranes – lipids, proteins, saccharides

·      cytoplasmic membrane


Membranes II

·           membrane transport

·           carrier proteins

·           ion channels and the electrical properties of membranes


Membrane organelles I

·         mitochondria

o   the structure

o   cellular respiration – Krebs cycle, electron-transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

·         chloroplasts

o   the structure

o   photosynthesis – light reactions and dark reactions


Membrane organelles II

·         endoplasmic reticulum

·         Golgi apparatus

·         endosomes

·         lysosomes

·         peroxisomes

·         intracellular vesicular transport

o   transport from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi apparatus

o   transport from the trans Golgi network to lysosomes

o   transport into the cell from the plasma membrane: endocytosis

o   transport from the trans Golgi network to the cell exterior: exocytosis


Cell communications

·         general principles of cell communication

·         signal molecules

·         receptors

o   ion-channel–coupled receptors

o   G-protein–coupled receptors

o   enzyme–coupled receptors


Cell division

·         cell cycle - four phases (G1, S, G2, M)

·         mitosis - prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis

·         meiosis


Cell cycle control system 

·         regulation of the cell cycle

·         cell differentiation

·         cell death


Reproduction of organisms

  • asexual reproduction
    • characteristics
    • binary division, vegetative reproduction, amitosis
  • sexual reproduction
    • characteristics
    • gametogenesis - spermatogenesis, oogenesis, fertilization
Teaching methods - Czech
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)

Přednášky - teorie

Moodle - videa, "procvičovací kvízy", "otázky a odpovědi", sestavování "slovníku" pojmů

Praktická cvičení - základy mikroskopování, pozorování rostlinné a živočišné buňky, funkce organel, osmotické jevy v rostlinné a živočišné buňce, reprodukce buněk, tkáňové kultury

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: Mgr. Zuzana Svobodová, Ph.D. (03.10.2023)

The form of an exam is a test composed of 35 questions ( theory and practical classes).

Types of questions: single best answer, matching, image description.

  • limit for passing the test: 70% of correct answers

  • evaluation: excellent: 100 % - 90 %

     very good: 89 % - 80 %

     good: 79 % - 70 %

The student should show knowledge across the subject of Cell Biology, specifically in the following areas:

1.      Definition and general characteristics of cell

2.      Structure of prokaryotic cell

3.      Structure of eukaryotic cell 

4.      Cell nucleus

5.      Structure of DNA

6.      Chromosome structure in prokaryotes and viruses

7.      Chromosome structure in eukaryotes

8.      Replication, transcription and translation

9.      Structure of living systems – water, inorganic substances, low molecular weight organic molecules (saccharides, organic acids, amino acids, nucleotides, phospholipids)

10.  Structure of living systems – high molecular weight organic molecules (polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids)

11.  Membrane structure

12.  Cytoplasmic membrane

13.  Membrane transport (carrier proteins, ion channels)

14.  Mitochondria (structure, cellular respiration)

15.  Chloroplasts (structure, photosynthesis)

16.  Endoplasmic reticulum

17.  Golgi apparatus

18.  Endosomes

19.  Lysosomes

20.  Peroxisomes

21.  Intracellular vesicular transport

22.  General principles of cell communications

23.  Receptors (basic characteristics, signaling cascade)

24.  Ion-channel–coupled receptors

25.  G-protein–coupled receptors

26.  Enzyme–coupled receptors

27.  Microtubules

28.  Actin filaments

29.  Intermediate filaments

30.  Cell cycle

31.  Mitosis

32.  Meiosis

33.  Cell cycle control system

34.  Cell differentiation

35.  Cell death

36.  Cell stress

37.  Asexual reproduction

38.  Spermatogenesis

39.  Oogenesis

40.  Fertilization

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