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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Microbiology - GB194
Title: Mikrobiologie
Guaranteed by: Department of Biological and Medical Sciences (16-16150)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2021
Semester: summer
Points: 0
E-Credits: 6
Examination process: summer s.:oral
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:32/14, C+Ex [HS]
Capacity: unlimited / 75 (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: Czech
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: (ZB prez.1.r.)
Note: deregister from the exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: RNDr. Klára Konečná, Ph.D.
Co-requisite : GB275
Is pre-requisite for: GB067, GB197
Annotation -
Last update: RNDr. Klára Konečná, Ph.D. (16.02.2024)
The subject Microbiology belongs to biological disciplines, providing basic knowledge about biology, morphology, metabolism, genetics, and pathogenicity of microorganisms. The emphasis is put on fundamental aspects of the relationship between microorganism-host-environment and antimicrobial agents. During the study, the student will gain an overview of various microbial entities. Among other things, the most medically relevant pathogens of infectious diseases and the basic techniques for detecting microbial agents in microbiological laboratories are introduced. The issue of antimicrobial therapy is included in the overview, as well. Education aims to prepare students to extend the basic knowledge from the subject for subsequent studies and on the application of knowledge in medical practice.
Course completion requirements -
Last update: RNDr. Klára Konečná, Ph.D. (16.02.2024)

Credit conditions:
100% attendance in laboratory practice (no unexcused absence) - specified in more detail in the folder Study material.

Average mark from protocols less than / equal to 2.0. Protocols submitted no later than the end of June.

Successfully passed credit test.

Exam conditions:
Received credit.

Successfully passed exam test (20 questions + short essay/open- ended questions).

Oral exam.

Literature - Czech
Last update: RNDr. Klára Konečná, Ph.D. (16.02.2024)


  • Buchta, Vladimír, Horáček, Jiří Horák, Vladimír, Jílek, Petr. Základy mikrobiologie a parazitologie pro farmaceuty. Praha: Karolinum, 1998, 192 s. ISBN 80-7184-565-5.
  • Jílek, Petr, Förstl, Miroslav, Buchta, Vladimír, Kubanová, Petra. Úvod do mikrobiologických vyšetřovacích metod ve zdravotnictví. Praha: Karolinum, 2002, 104 s. ISBN 80-246-0459-0.
  • Votava, Miroslav. Lékařská mikrobiologie obecná. Brno: Neptun, 2001, 247 s. ISBN 80-902896-2-2.
  • Goering, Richard V. Dockrell, Hazel M. Zuckerman, Mark A. Chiodini, Peter L.. Lékařská mikrobiologie. Praha: Stanislav Juhaňák - Triton, 2016, 568 s. ISBN 978-80-7387-928-0.


  • Votava, Miroslav. Lékařská mikrobiologie. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2000, 309 s. ISBN 80-210-2272-8.
  • Votava, Miroslav. Lékařská mikrobiologie speciální. Brno: Neptun, 2003, 495 s. ISBN 80-902896-6-5.

Syllabus -
Last update: RNDr. Klára Konečná, Ph.D. (16.02.2024)

Introduction to microbiology, milestones in microbiology, relationships between human and microbes

Basic review of antimicrobial compounds


Resistance to antibiotics 

Microbial genetics

Microbial physiology, morphology and metabolism of prokaryotes 

Introduction to pharmaceutical microbiology 

Medically important grampositive bacteria

Medically important gramnegative bacteria

Medically important acid-fast bacteria 

Parazitology - parasitic protozoa and hemlmints

Sexually transmitted diseases

Introduction to mycology and virology

Introduction to laboratory practice in microbiology laboratory.

- disinfection, pre-sterilization preparation, sterilization, swab methods

- microscopic techniques, native and stained mounts

- cultivation, cultivation conditions, types of cultivation media, use of cultivation media

- testing the susceptibility of microorganisms to antimicrobials

- laboratory diagnostics of gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria

- laboratory diagnostics of fungal agents

- laboratory diagnostics of parasitic agents

- methods for identification of microbial agents


Learning resources -
Teaching methods -
Last update: RNDr. Klára Konečná, Ph.D. (16.02.2024)

lectures, PPT presentations

seminars – discussion on given topic

practical classes – introduction to basic methods used in microbiological laboratories

Requirements to the exam -
Last update: RNDr. Klára Konečná, Ph.D. (16.02.2024)

Knowledge of discipline defined in sylabus of the subject.


Part: General microbiology

1.       The subject microbiology – aim of the study, disciplines, special/applied disciplines.

2.       The role of microorganisms in nature – ecological role, role in medicine.

3.       Utilization of microbes in food industry, biotechnological processes, bioremediation.

4.       Microbes  - their metabolism and relation to oxygen (photoautotroph, photoheterotroph, chemoautotroph, chemoheterotroph, strict aerobe, anaerobe, facultative anaerobe, …, (source of energy/carbon, examples).

5.       The growth curve and factors affecting the growth of microbes.

6.       The role of microbes in ecosystems – destruent, saprophyte, parasite, pathogen. Relations among organisms – symbiosis, commensalism, mutualism, parasitism.

7.       Taxonomy of microorganisms – nomenclature and classification, binomial nomenclature.

8.       Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cell – comparison; bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi – (cell structure, cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, genetics, reproduction).

9.       Archaebacteria – main characteristic – size, cell structure, metabolism.

10.   Bacteria - main characteristic – size, cell structure, metabolism, ecological role.

11.   Eukaryotes  - main characteristic – size, cell structure, metabolism, ecological role.

12.   Fungi - main characteristic – cell structure (cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane), metabolism, growth  - blastospores, mycelium, hypha, dimorphism; role in ecosystem; diseases (mycetism, mycotoxicosis, mycoallergy, mycosis, dermatomycosis, endemic mycosis, opportunistic mycosis).

13.   Viruses  - main characteristic, structure, reproduction, classification (DNA/RNA viruses, capsid symmetry, envelope), bacteriophage – main characteristic, gene engineering, phage therapy, lysogenic conversion.

14.   Viral pathogenesis – lytic, lysogenic cycle, transformation.

15.   Prions – main characteristic.

16.   Theory of spontaneous generation, theory of biogenesis.

17.   A. van Leeuwenhoek, L. Pasteur, R. Koch, J. Lister, E. Jenner, A. Fleming  - their contribution to microbiology.

18.   Bacterial genetics – chromosome, plasmid, transposons, genotype, phenotype, DNA polymerase, operon, mutations.

19.   Parasexual processes in bacteria – transformation, transduction, conjugation.

20.   Obligate parasite/pathogen, opportunistic pathogen/parasite.

21.   Transmission of infectious particles – direct way, indirect way, vector, antropozoonosis, zoonosis.

22.   Infection (inaparent, latent, manifestative), anatomical localization of infections, phases of infections.

23.   Host defence mechanisms – mechanical, chemical, immune, ecological barriers.

24.   Pathogenesis, factors of virulence – adhesins, enzymes, toxins, dimorphism.

25.   Resistance – intrinsic, acquired, clinical resistance, microbiological resistance, multidrug resistance, cross-resistance, co-resistance, molecular mechanisms of resistance.  

26.   Determination of sensitivity/resistance to antimicrobials in vitro – disc diffusion method, E-test, broth microdilution method  - MIC, MBC.


Part: Medical microbiology 

27.  Gram positive cocci  - St. aureusSt. epidermidis, … (morphology, catalase, plasmacoagulase, haemolysins, toxins, enzymes production, infections), MRSA, VRSA.

28.   Gram positive cocci – streptococci, enterococci; division according to haemolysis, antigenic structure, pathophysiology, Streptococcus pyogenesStr. agalactiae, oral streptococci, Str. pneumoniaeE. faecium (disease, toxins, enzymes production, therapy).

29.   Gram negative cocci – meningococci, gonococci (Neisseria meningitidis, N. gonorrhoeae) – disease, transmission, prevention, laboratory diagnostics.

30.   Gram negative bacteria/rods – genus: Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia (disease, transmission, diagnostics – serotypization), coliform bacteria – Escherichia (EHEC, EIEC, EPEC, ETEC), Klebsiella, Citrobacter; aerobic Gram negative rods – Pseudomonas sp., Vibrio sp. (disease).

31.   Spirochetes  -Treponema pallidumBorrelia burgdorferi (transmission, disease, therapy).

32.   Mycobacteria – tuberculosis, mycobacteriosis (causative agents, therapy, laboratory diagnostics).

33.   Sexually transmitted diseases  - syphilis, gonorhea, ulcus mole, AIDS, herpes genitalis, … (causative agents, symptoms of disease, therapy).

34.   Viruses  - family: Herpesviridae, HSV1, HSV2, herpes virus varicellae-zosteris, cytomegalovirus, virus Epstein-Barr (transmission, disease, therapy, prevention).

35.   Viruses  - family: Poxviridae, smallpox virus, vaccinia virus (transmission, disease, therapy, prevention).

36.   Viruses  - influenza viruses (transmission, antigenic shift, antigenic drift, disease, therapy, prevention).

37.   Hepatitis viruses – HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV (transmission, disease, therapy, prevention).

38.   Retroviruses  - HIV (transmission, tropism, symptoms of disease, therapy, prevention).

39.   Mumps, measles, rubella viruses (transmission, disease, therapy, prevention).

40.   Superficial mycosis – infections (pytiriasis versicolor, dermatomycosis – tinea, onychomycosis, white/black piedra).

41.   Subcutaneous mycosis – chromoblastomycosis, subcutaneous zygomycosis, mycetoma.

42.   Dimorphic fungi – occurrence, disease, causative agents.

43.   Yeast infections – Candida albicans, dimorphism, pathogenesis, risk factors, disease (cutaneous, subcutaneous, systemic), Cryptococcus neoformans – virulence factor, disease, risk factors.

44.   Moulds – Aspergillus spp., Mucorales – diseases.

45.   Medically important protozoa – forms (trophozoit, cyst), amoebae - Entamoeba hystolyticaEntamoeba gingivalis – transmission, disease, therapy; flagellated parasites - Giardia lamblia (intestinalis), Trichomonas vaginalisTrypanosoma gamblineseLeishmania sp. – occurence, transmission, disease, therapy; parasitic alveolate - -Toxoplasma gondii – transmission, disease.

46.   Blood parasites – Plasmodium spp., occurrence, transmission, malaria (tertian fever, quartan fever), prevention, therapy; laboratory diagnostic.

47.   Parasitic helminths - nematoda – common characteristics; Trichinella spiralisEnterobius vermicularisAscaris lumbricoidesToxocara canis, filaria… (occurrence, transmission, disease).

48.   Parasitic helminths – flatworms- cestoda, trematoda – common characteristics, transmission; Trichinella spiralisEnterobius vermicularisAscaris lumbricoidesToxocara canis, filaria(occurrence, transmission, disease).

49.   Types of clinical specimens – naturally sterile, non-sterile materials.

50.   Light microscopy – slide preparation for microscopy – wet/stained mounts, Gram staining, acid-fast staining by Ziehl-Neelsen, Burry staining, Giemsa staining technique.

51.   Cultivation of microorganisms – cultivation condition, cultivation atmosphere, growth media – blood, Endo, Loewenstein, Mueller-Hinton, McConkey, Sabouraud agar.

52.   Microbial flora of human body – examples, the role.

Part: Pharmaceutical microbiology

53.   Antimicrobial agents, definitions: disinfectants, antiseptics, preservatives, antibiotics.

54.   Disinfectants – definition, categories/classification, application, examples, factors affecting effectiveness.

55.  Antiseptics – definition, application, examples, ideal antiseptic.

56.   Preservatives – definition, effect, application, examples.

57.   Antimicrobials – classification according ethiology, definition, application, classification according the effect/according the spectrum of activity.

58.   Antibiotics – classification according to the target in microbes/mechanism of action.

59.   Antibiotics – classification according to chemical structure.

60.   Beta-lactam antibiotics – target, mechanism of action, spectrum, mechanisms of resistance, groups – penams, cephems, carbapenems, monobactams- examples; inhibitors of beta-lactamases.

61.   Aminoglycosides – mechanism of action, spectrum, examples, mechanisms of resistance.

62.   Tetracyclines - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples, mechanisms of resistance.

63.   Chloramphenicol - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples, mechanisms of resistance, toxicity.

64.   Glycopeptides - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples, toxicity.

65.   Macrolides - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples.

66.   Lincosamides - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples.

67.   Quinolones - - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples – division into generations, contraindication.

68.   Ansamycins - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples, resistance.

69.   Sulphonamides - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples.

70.   Nitrofurans/Nitroimidazoles - mechanism of action, spectrum, examples.

71.   Antituberculotics - mechanisms of action, examples.

72.   Antiviral drugs – mechanism of action, examples: aciclovir, ganciclovir, amantadine, zidovudine, stavudine, tenofovir, adefovir, ribavirin, interferons.

73.   Antifungal drugs – targets, mechanism of action, spectrum of action, examples: polyene antifungals – amfotericin B, nystatin; azole antifungals – ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole; echinocandins – caspofungin, micafungin; alylamine antifungals – terbinafine.

74.   Sterility, sterilization – definition, sterilization processes – physical sterilization (dry heat, autoclave), chemical sterilization.

75.   Sequels of microbial contamination/spoilage of pharmaceuticals, prevention of microbial degradation/contamination of pharmaceutical products.

76.    Microbiological control in pharmacy – sterility control and testing, division of pharmaceutical products into categories, bacterial endotoxin/pyrogen testing.

Methodical approaches in the microbiological laboratory

- disinfection, pre-sterilization preparation, sterilization, swab methods

- microscopic techniques, native and stained mounts

- cultivation, cultivation conditions, types of cultivation media, use of cultivation media

- testing the susceptibility of microorganisms to antimicrobials

- laboratory diagnostics of gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria

- laboratory diagnostics of fungal agents

- laboratory diagnostics of parasitic agents

- methods for identification of microbial agents


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