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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Physical Chemistry - GAF199
Title: Physical Chemistry
Guaranteed by: Department of Biophysics and Physical Chemistry (16-16110)
Faculty: Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové
Actual: from 2023
Semester: summer
Points: 0
E-Credits: 5
Examination process: summer s.:written
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:28/28, C+Ex [HS]
Capacity: unlimited / 90 (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Level:  
Explanation: (F,1.r.)
Note: deregister from the exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
course can be enrolled in outside the study plan
enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: Mgr. Jana Pavlíková Přecechtělová, Ph.D.
Classification: Pharmacy >
Co-requisite : GAF105
Is pre-requisite for: GAF308
Annotation -
Physical chemistry is a multidisciplinary subject employing the knowledge of physics, chemistry, electrochemistry and quantum mechanics for the description of substances on both the molecular and the macroscopic level. This subject provides a necessary theoretical basis and enables students to acquire knowledge of principles of physical-chemical methods of measurement. This subject affords a fundamental knowledge necessary in study of follow-up subjects from the area of natural sciences as well as pharmaceutical disciplines. Topics: Introduction to the subject, Intermolecular forces and states of matter, Physico-chemical properties of substances, photochemistry, Thermodynamics, Chemical equilibrium, Phase equilibrium, Reaction kinetics, Electrochemistry, Colloidal systems.
Last update: Pavlíková Přecechtělová Jana, Mgr., Ph.D. (18.02.2024)
Course completion requirements -

Following conditions need to be fulfilled to gain the credit:

1. Completing all the tasks in the practical classes. Tasks missed for any reason need to be replaced in specially specified terms.
2. Successful submission of protocols from completed tasks.
3. Passing the credit test. The credit test consists of two computational tasks (both tasks for 25 points each, i.e. 50 points altogether). To pass the test, student need to obtain at least 20 points.

Last update: Pavlíková Přecechtělová Jana, Mgr., Ph.D. (18.02.2024)
Literature -

Obligatory:

  • Lázníčková A., Kubíček V.. Physical Chemistry . : Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy, 1998, s. ISBN .
  • Kubíček V., Lázníčková A.. Practical Training by Physical Chemistry . : Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2001, s. ISBN .

Recommended:

  • Atkins, P. W.. Physical chemistry . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990, 995 s. ISBN .

Last update: Kubíček Vladimír, Ing., CSc. (12.10.2021)
Syllabus -

Introduction to the subject

  • A content of physical chemistry and its relation to pharmaceutical disciplines.

Intermolecular forces and states of matter

  • binding and non-binding interactions

  • isotropy, anisotropy, polymorphism, isomorphism, liquid crystals.

Physico-chemical properties of substances, photochemistry

  • Polarity of substances, dipole moment, relative permitivity,

  • absorption of electromagnetic radiation, Lamber-Beer´s law,

  • atomic absorption and emission spectra

  • light absorption by molecules in UV, VIS and IR region,

  • molecular emission spectra (Raman phenomenon, fluorescence and phosphorescence)

  • photochemical reactions.

Thermodynamics

  • 1st law of thermodynamics, internal energy and enthalpy, standard state, thermochemistry, reaction heats, thermochemical laws, standard heats of formation and combustion, dependence of the reaction heat on temperature

  • 2nd law of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy, Helmholtz and Gibbs energies, chemical potential, conception of absolute entropy

  • 3rd law of thermodynamics.

Chemical equilibrium

  • Equilibrium constant, equilibrium degree of conversion and its control by reaction conditions, LeChatelier principle

  • standard change of Gibbs energy during a reaction, temperature dependence of equilibrium constant.

Phase equilibrium

  • Gibbs phase rule, types of systems

  • one component equilibrium, Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations

  • two component systems, Henry´s law, sparingly miscible liquids

  • solubility of solid substances, system solid substance - solvent, melts

  • Raoult´s law and its application, cryoscopy and ebullioscopy, osmotic pressure

  • three component systems, Nernst distribution law, extraction

  • ternary diagram, system of three liquids

  • interfacial phenomena, principles of chromatography

  • basic methodology of thermal analysis.

Reaction kinetics

  • reaction rate, molecularity, mechanisms and order of a reaction,

  • simplex reactions, reactions of 0th, 1st, 2nd and n-th order of reaction, rate constant, reaction half-life, determination of an order of reaction

  • effect of temperature and other factors on reaction rate

  • kinetics of simultaneous reactions

  • heterogeneous reaction, catalysis
  • theories of the rate constant

Electrochemistry

  • equilibria electrolyte solutions, characteristics of electrolytes, degree of dissociation

  • Arrhenius classical theory

  • activity, activity coefficient, ionic strength, Debye-Hückel equations for activity coefficients

  • dissociation of water, pH in aqueous and non-aqueous media, theories of acids and bases

  • dissociation of weak acids and bases, calculation of their pH, Ostwald´s law

  • buffers, mechanism of their action, Henderson-Hasselbalch equations, buffer capacity

  • hydrolysis of salts, hydrolytic constant and calculation of pH of salt solutions

  • amphoteric electrolytes, isoelectric point

  • acid-base indicators

  • solubility of precipitates, solubility product

  • transport processes electrolyte solutions, conductivity of electrolytes, Kohlrausch law, Arrhenius relation,

  • electrode potential metal/metal-ion system, oxidation-reduction potential, types of electrodes,

  • galvanic cells, measurement of EMV, junction potential, physiologic potential

  • electrolysis, Faraday´s laws, polarization, principle of classical polarography and related voltametric methods.

Colloidal systems

  • Classification of dispersed systems

  • lyophilic, lyophobic and associating colloids

  • optical, kinetic and electrical properties of colloids

  • suspensions, liquid surfaces, surface and interface tension, sedimentation

  • emulsions, types of emulsions, surface and interfacial tension,

  • adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface-active substances, hydrophile-lipophile balance,

  • electric double layer, Nernst and zeta potential, influence of electrolytes.

 

Practical training

  • Determination of the relative molecular weight by Rast method
  • Determination of the phase diagram in a ternary system containing a single pair of sparingly miscible liquids
  • Determination of the distribution coefficient of a substance between two immiscible liquids
  • Kinetic measurement of the acetylsalicylic acid decomposition (1st order kinetics)
  • Kinetic measurement of the basic decomposition of ethyl acetate (2nd order kinetics)
  • Potentiometric determination of the dissociation constant of a weak acid
  • Conductimetric determination of the dissociation constant of a weak acid or a weak base
  • Measurement of electrode potentials
  • Determination of the critical micellar concentration
  • Spectrophotometric determination of the dissociation constant of an acid-base indicator

 

Seminars, solution of model problems

  • Concentration of solutions
  • pH of strong and weak acids and bases, pH of buffers, pH dependence of dissociation of substances
  • electrode potential, oxidation-reduction potential
  • osmotic pressure
  • reaction rate, half-life of reaction, Arrhenius equation
  • Clausius-Clapeyron equation, equilibrium constant, van’t Hoff´s reaction isobar, van’t Hoff´s reaction isotherm
  • thermodynamic feasibility of a reaction
  • distribution coefficient
  • basic thermodynamic quantities
Last update: Pavlíková Přecechtělová Jana, Mgr., Ph.D. (18.02.2024)
 
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