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Course, academic year 2019/2020
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Pathological Physiology - EA0906090
Title in English: Patologická fyziologie
Guaranteed by: Ústav patologické fyziologie (14-90)
Faculty: Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen
Actual: from 2018
Semester: summer
Points: 7
E-Credits: 7
Examination process: summer s.:
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:2/2 C+Ex [hours/week]
Capacity: unlimited / unlimited (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Level:  
For type:  
Note: deregister from the exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
Guarantor: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D.
Teacher(s): MUDr. Jan Barcal, Ph.D.
doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D.
RNDr. Dana Jelínková, Ph.D.
MUDr. Karel Ježek, Ph.D.
Ing. Pavel Klein, Ph.D.
Ing. Zuzana Petránková, Ph.D.
MUDr. Zdeňka Purkartová, Ph.D.
prof. MUDr. Pavel Sobotka, DrSc.
doc. MUDr. František Vožeh, CSc.
Co-requisite : EA0903015
Pre-requisite : EA0903010, EA0904011
Is co-requisite for: EA0907450, EA0908360, EA0908480, EA0907380, EA0908310, EA0908023, EA0907330, EA0208024
Annotation
Last update: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (15.11.2017)
The subject content consists of general and special pathophysiology, i.e. general principles of pathological phenomena, etiology and pathogenesis of disorders of particular organs and organ systems and particular diseases including explanation of relations between normal and pathological processes in various organ systems and on various levels of the organism. Practical skills related to basic medical approaches in the context of theoretical knowledge are also taught. Knowledge of subjects which pathophysiology follows up on, i.e. anatomy, histology, embryology, biology chemistry and biochemistry, biophysics, physiology and microbiology, is an integral part of pathophysiology and are interrelated and used for explanation of principles of diseases and pathological processes.
Teaching of pathophysiology for dental medicine students is focused in details on general pathophysiology and on special pathophysiology of severe states and those stated that can arise as a complication of stomatological diseases or their treatment and pathophysiology of diseases that could determine a high-risk patient from the point of view of the dental medicine. Other areas of pathophysiology are explained on the level of basal overview with respect to interconnections between pathophysiology of individual organ systems.
Course completion requirements
Last update: MUDr. Zdeňka Purkartová, Ph.D. (11.02.2019)

Conditions for credit

 

The summer semester education is finalized with a credit. The credit is a condition for admission and for registration to the exam.

 

Conditions for the summer semester credit:

 

1. Active attending practical exercises.

 

2. Submitting of correctly elaborated protocols of all experiments and practical exercises verified by the teacher.

 

The conditions of the credits for students having an individual study plan, who enrolled pathophysiology for the second time, will be appointed individually in dependence on study duties passed in the previous academic year. These conditions will not exceed the range of above specified general duties.

Literature
Last update: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (15.11.2017)

Study literature for dental medicine students

Mandatory:

Sobotka et al.: Pathophysiology – Laboratory Exercises. 2013, Karolinum, 2013

McPhee, Hammer et al.: Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 6th Edition 2010 (or later issues)

Educational materials published on the webpage of the Department of Pathophysiology and educational portals of the Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen

  

Recommended:

Hulín et al.: Pathophysiology. Slovak Academic Press, 1997 (or later issues)

Silbernagl and Lang: Color Atlas of Pathophysiology. 3rd edition, Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2016

Price and Wilson et al.: Pathophysiology – Clinical concepts of disease processes. Mosby, Inc., 2003

Guyton: Human physiology and mechanisms of disease. W. B. Saunders Company, the latest issue

 

Requirements to the exam
Last update: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (21.05.2018)

Conditions for the exam

The exam consists of a test, practical exam and oral exam. Practical and oral exam represent one complex and they cannot be separated into two exam terms.

 

Exam test:

The limit for successful passing the test is 68% of maximum points that can be achieved. If the student does not achieve the point passing limit the exam stops for this term without classification and loss of therm. In the case of the second unsuccessful test attempt the regular exam term is classified “failed”. The exam test is not a part of the first and second re-examination.

 

Practical exam:

Practical exam consists of 3 ECG records description and diagnosis setting, surgical knot and suture exam and one question related to practical exercises. To pass the practical exam, the student must show sufficient knowledge in all three parts. Failure in the practical exam means classification of the exam “failed”.

 

Oral exam:

The student draws 3 questions related to the syllabus of the subject. To pass the oral exam, the student must show sufficient knowledge in each of these 3 questions.

 

Final classification takes into consideration not only the performance in the oral exam but also the classification of the practical exam.

Syllabus
Last update: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (21.02.2018)

Syllabus of pathophysiology – dental medicine

The student knows the facts in the field of general and special pathophysiology, can present and logically organize them, recognize and evaluate their importance, name examples of described phenomena. The student is oriented in the problem and can explain pathophysiological mechanisms of the diseases, explain how and why pathological processes happen and develop. The student can find and explain a context and relations between knowledge of various areas of pathophysiology, understand and use interdependence of individual organ systems in normal as well as pathological states. The student has knowledge of subjects which pathophysiology follows up on, i.e. anatomy, histology, embryology, biology chemistry and biochemistry, biophysics, physiology and microbiology. The student can use this knowledge to understand pathophysiology and can find and explain their relations.

 

General pathophysiology

Introduction to the subject, definition of basic terms, etiology, pathogenesis

Disease and its course, manifestation of diseases

Etiological factors

Intrinsic etiological factors (constitution, reactivity, epigenetics, heredity)

Extrinsic etiological factors (physical, chemical, biological, social)

Developmental disorders

Diseases and disorders linked to a certain age

Gametopathy, blastopathy, embryopathy, fetopathy, perinatal damage, teratogenic factors

Growth disorders - nanism, gigantism

Aging, causes and mechanisms of aging, theory of aging, consequences of aging

Terminal states, death - clinical and biological death, causes and mechanisms of death, signs of death, dying and its stages, persistent vegetative state, locked-in syndrome

Stress - the concept of general adaptation syndrome, stress phases, relation of stress to pathogenesis of disease, stress diseases, stress axes disturbances

Pathophysiology of immunity – immunodeficiency, allergy, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, transplantation

Pathophysiology of thermoregulation – overheating, hypothermia, fever, malignant hyperthermia

Pathophysiology of tumors - classification of tumors, tumorigenesis, metastasis, paraneoplastic phenomena

Acid-base balance and its disorders

Pathophysiology of body fluids – changes of volume and osmolality, edema

 

Special pathophysiology – pathophysiology of organ systems

Pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system

Heart defects, disturbances of peripheral blood circulation, atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, arterial hypertension, cardiac insufficiency and failure, pulmonary hypertension, thromboembolic disease, circulatory shock

Pathophysiology of the blood

Pathophysiology of red blood cells, pathophysiology of leukocytes, hemorrhagic diathesis, thrombotic states

Pathophysiology of breathing

Hypoxia, cyanosis, obstructive and restrictive disorders of lung ventilation, disorders of lung diffusion and perfusion, disorders of breathing regulation, acute respiratory distress syndrome

Pathophysiology of the excretory system

Pathophysiology of acute and chronic renal failure, uremic syndrome

Pathophysiology of the endocrine system

Pathophysiology of endocrine function of the hypothalamus, neuro- and adenohypophysis

Pathophysiology of the thyroid gland – thyroid hormones

Pathophysiology of the adrenal cortex and medulla

Pathophysiology of the parathyroid glands

Pathophysiology of metabolism and internal environment

Pathophysiology of energetic metabolism

Disorder of glycaemia regulation, diabetes mellitus

Pathophysiology of calcium metabolism

Pathophysiology of protein and amino acids metabolism, nitrogen balance

Pathophysiology of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism

Pathophysiology of nutrition

Eating disorders, malnutrition, anorexia, bulimia, pathophysiology of starvation, obesity

Rational diet, carbohydrates, fats and proteins as food components

Hypovitaminoses and hypervitaminoses, lack and excess of minerals and trace elements

Pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract

Pathophysiology of the oral cavity, stomach, small and large intestine

Pathophysiology of exocrine pancreas

Pathophysiology of the liver, portal hypertension, ascites and hyperbilirubinemia

Pathophysiology of the nervous system

General causes of disorders and illnesses of the nervous system

Disorders of peripheral nerves

Pathophysiology of the spinal cord, brain stem, cerebellum, hypothalamus, basal ganglia

Pathophysiology of vegetative nervous system

Pathophysiology of neuromuscular transmission

Pathophysiology of learning and memory and symbolic functions

Neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders

Pathophysiology of epilepsy

Pathophysiology of the motor system, paralysis, ataxias

Pathophysiology of sleep and biological rhythms

Pathophysiology of brain edema and intracranial hypertension

Pathophysiology of the sensory systems - pathophysiology of somatosensory system, pain

 

Practical knowledge and skills

Statistics

Laboratory animals and principles of laboratory work

Electrocardiography, principles, ECG record description, diagnosis

Electroencephalography

Using electricity in medicine, active and passive electrical properties of tissues

Injection technique

Local and general anesthesia, complex management of general anesthesia

Surgical instruments and sewing materials

Definition of concepts, methods, preparation of the surgical field

Basic surgical procedures – surgical knots and stitches, asepsis, antisepsis

Examination of hemorrhagic diatheses, Measurement of blood pressure

Examination of pulmonary ventilation – spirometry, obstructive and restrictive disorders

Entry requirements
Last update: doc. MUDr. Jan Cendelín, Ph.D. (21.02.2018)

For the practical exercises, the student must be equipped with his own lab-coat, must be theoretically prepared for the topic of the given class and is obliged to acquaint himself with the guideline for the given experiment or task (webpage of the Department of Pathophysiology: http://www.lfp.cuni.cz/patofyziologie, textbook Sobotka et al.: Pathophysiology – Laboratory Exercises). Students, who did not attend the class in time, will be not admitted to the class.

Course completion requirements
Last update: MUDr. Zdeňka Purkartová, Ph.D. (11.02.2019)

Conditions for credit

 

The summer semester education is finalized with a credit. The credit is a condition for admission and for registration to the exam.

 

Conditions for the summer semester credit:

 

1. Active attending practical exercises.

 

2. Submitting of correctly elaborated protocols of all experiments and practical exercises verified by the teacher.

 

The conditions of the credits for students having an individual study plan, who enrolled pathophysiology for the second time, will be appointed individually in dependence on study duties passed in the previous academic year. These conditions will not exceed the range of above specified general duties.

 
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