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Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Pharmacology - EA0107015
Title: Pharmacology
Guaranteed by: Ústav farmakologie (14-100)
Faculty: Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen
Actual: from 2022
Semester: winter
Points: 9
E-Credits: 9
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:3/2, C+Ex [HT]
Capacity: unknown / unknown (unknown)
Min. number of students: unlimited
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
Key competences:  
State of the course: cancelled
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
For type:  
Note: deregister from the exam date if a requisite was not fulfilled
Guarantor: prof. PharmDr. Radek Kučera, Ph.D.
Co-requisite : EA0105084, EA0105085, EA0106013, EA0106014
Interchangeability : EAP0103100
Is co-requisite for: EA0110019, EA0110024, EA0110029, EA0110030, EA0110057, EA0110023, EA0110032, EA0110116, EA0110432
Is interchangeable with: EAP0103100
Annotation -
Last update: BURIANKO (26.04.2005)
Pharmacokinetics/dynamics, individ. variation, side effects, interactions, evaluation of new drugs, rational pharmacother., pharmacopoeia, drug formulations, prescribing of drugschemical mediators, nervous system, drugs affecting heart + vascular system, haemostasis + thrombosis, diuretics, dislipoproteinaemias, respiratory + gastrointestinal systems, uterus, anti-inflammatory + immunosuppressant drugs, radiopharmaceuticals, locally acting drugs, disinfectant +antiseptic agents, chemotherapy of infectious + malignant disease, hormones, vitamins, toxicology, phytotherapy, phytotoxicology
Last update: Irena Zemenová (02.10.2019)


1. Rang-Dale-Ritter: Pharmacology - 6th Edit., (Churchill - Livingstone).

2. Dale - Haylett: Pharmacology Condensed, (Churchill - Livingstone)

3. British National Formulary (latest edition)


Special pharmacology

1. H.P.Rang, M.M.Dale, P.K.Moore: Pharmacology (Churchill Livingstone)

2. M.M.Dale, D.G. Haylett: Pharmacology condensed (Churchill Livingstone)

3. A.J.Trevor, B.G.Katzung, S.B.Masters: Katzung and Trevor?s Pharmacology  McGraw - Hill

Requirements to the exam
Last update: prof. PharmDr. Radek Kučera, Ph.D. (20.11.2020)


Credit requirements:




Attendance at seminars, passing two interim tests, oral presentation covering latest news in pharmacy and therapeutics, submission of computer simulated experiments report and passing a credit test (covering the materials from the seminars) are compulsory. There is one regular date and two resit dates for the credit test.


Credit in SIS and signed credit in Credit Book is needed.




Exam requirements:


Credit in SIS and signed credit in Credit Book is needed.



 General Pharmacology




1.                  Pharmacology and its subdivisions, origins and sources of drugs, names of drugs


2.                  Preclinical drug evaluation, clinical trials (phases)


3.                  Routes of administration of drugs, advantages, disadvantages, dosage forms


4.                  Drug transport through biological membranes – passive, carrier-mediated


5.                  Basic pharmacokinetic parameters and processes, first order and zero order kinetics, saturation kinetics.


6.                  Absorption of drugs, Bateman function, bioavailability, determination of bioavailability, AUC


7.                  Distribution, of drugs, volume of distribution, redistribution, binding to plasma proteins, tissue barriers.


8.                  Elimination, elimination half-life (α, β phase), elimination rate constant, clearance


9.                  Dosage regimens, continuous and intermittent administration of drugs, accumulation, accumulation index


10.              Biotransformation of drugs, phases, examples


11.              The role of the liver in drug metabolism, first pass effect


12.              Induction and inhibition of enzymes, clinical significance.


13.              Renal and extrarenal excretion of drugs


14.              General principles of drug action, molecular mechanisms of drug action, the importance of placebo and nocebo


15.              Specific effect of drugs - targets of drug action, receptor theory - types of receptors.


16.              Dose-response relationship, therapeutic index, therapeutic window, therapeutic risk


17.              Factors influencing pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, adherence, compliance


18.              Drug interactions, synergism, antagonism


19.              Pharmacogenetics, genetic polymorphism


20.              Tolerance, tachyphylaxis, resistance


21.              Influence of diseases on the effect of drugs, polypharmacy


22.              Adverse drug reactions


23.              Drug induced allergic (hypersensitivity) reactions, idiosyncratic drug reactions


24.              Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects


25.              Drugs in pregnancy, teratogenic effect, drugs in lactation,


26.              Drug therapy in infants and children, drug therapy in the elderly






Special Pharmacology




1.                  Cholinergic neurotransmission, effects of drugs on cholinergic transmission, muscarinic and nicotinic actions of acetylcholine, direct-acting cholinergic agonists, clinical use


2.                  Reversible and irreversible anticholinesterase agents


3.                  Antimuscarinic agents – alkaloids and their derivatives, synthetic anticholinergic drugs, antispasmodics


4.                  Neurotransmission in autonomic ganglia, drugs acting on autonomic ganglia, ganglion-blocking drugs, nicotine, characteristics, effects of tobacco smoking and pharmacologic treatment of tobacco dependence


5.                  Adrenergic neurotransmission, effects of drug on adrenergic transmission, adrenoceptors, direct and indirect mechanism of action


6.                  Catecholamines, synthesis, biotransformation, uptake, adrenaline, noradrenaline, isoprenaline, dopamine, dobutamine


7.                  Alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, selective alpha-1 and alpha-2 agonists


8.                  Ephedrine, amphetamines


9.                  Beta-adrenoceptor agonists (β1, β2)


10.              Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, classification, clinical use


11.              Ergot alkaloids and their derivatives, serotonin (5-HT), 5-HT receptors and drugs acting on them


12.              Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists (β-blockers)


13.              Drugs used in ophthalmology


14.              Nitric oxide (NO)


15.              Neuromuscular-blocking agents, classification, depolarizing and nondepolarizing agents, antidotes, clinical use, adverse effects, drug interactions, malignant hyperthermia


16.              Dantrolene, Botulinum toxin type A, centrally acting muscle relaxants


17.              Local anaesthetics – chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, effects, types of local anaesthesia, classification by clinical use


18.              Adverse effects and intoxications of local anaesthetics, prevention and therapy


19.              Cocaine


20.              General anaesthesia, stages, inhalation anaesthetics in general, volatile inhalation anaesthetics, nitrous oxide (N2O) and xenon in general anaesthesia


21.              Intravenous general anaesthetics, neuroleptanalgesia, combined anaesthesia


22.              Risks of general anaesthesia, premedication, drug interactions with general anaesthetics, specific and nonspecific antagonists in general anaesthesia


23.              Hypnotics, principles of use, barbiturates and their effects, clinical use, current significance


24.              Benzodiazepines as hypnotics and Z-hypnotics


25.              Ethanol – acute effects, clinical use, methanol and therapy of methanol intoxication, alcoholism, effects on health, methods of treatment of alcohol addiction


26.              Antiepileptic drugs, principles of use, adverse effects, “classic” antiepileptic drugs


27.              “Newer” antiepileptic drugs


28.              Drug treatment of Parkinson’s disease – classification, mechanism of action, adverse effects, dopamine agonists and acetylcholine antagonists used in Parkinson’s disease


29.              Classification of psychiatric medication


30.              Typical and atypical antipsychotics


31.              Antidepressants – tricyclic


32.              Antidepressants – monoamine oxidase inhibitors


33.              Antidepressants – SSRI, SNRI and atypical antidepressants


34.              Mood stabilizers


35.              Anxiolytics (tranquilizers)


36.              Psychostimulants, CNS stimulants, anorectic drugs


37.              Drugs used in Alzheimer’s disease. Nootropics and related drugs.


38.              Psychoactive agents (hallucinogens)


39.              Cannabinoids, endocannabinoids: receptors, role in organism, possible use


40.              Substance (drug) dependence


41.              Opium and its alkaloids, endogenous opioids, morphine, morphine intoxication, morphine dependence


42.              Derivatives and substitutes of morphine, opioid antagonists and dualists


43.              Eicosanoids, significance, methods of influencing the eicosanoid synthesis, inflammatory cytokine inhibitors


44.              Analgesic-antipyretics, classification, adverse effects


45.              Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – classification, clinical use, adverse effects, cyclooxygenase I and II


46.              Pharmacotherapy of migraine


47.              Anti-rheumatic drugs – disease-modifying drugs, monoclonal antibodies


48.              Drugs used in gout


49.              Immunomodulation, immunosuppressive drugs, immunostimulant drugs


50.              Inotropic agents, digoxin and related drugs


51.              Antiarrhythmic drugs  – mechanism of action, classification, overview


52.              Antiarrhythmic drugs – characteristics and representatives of individual groups, unclassified drugs


53.              Vasoconstrictor drugs


54.              Methylxanthines and their derivatives


55.              Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers


56.              Aldosterone antagonists, drugs affecting natriuretic peptides


57.              Diuretics in general – sites of action, classification by mechanism of action, osmotic diuretics and aquaretics


58.              Thiazides, sulphonamide diuretics, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors


59.              Loop diuretics, use, risks, potassium-sparing diuretics


60.              Overview of vasodilator drugs (+ mechanism of action), direct vasodilator drugs (potassium channel openers – hydralazine, minoxidil and others)


61.              Calcium channel blockers


62.              Nitrites and nitrates


63.              Overview of drugs used in heart failure


64.              Overview of drugs used in coronary artery disease


65.              Antihypertensive drugs and their clinical use, adverse effects, contraindications


66.              Drugs used in atherosclerosis and drugs affecting lipid metabolism


67.              Drugs affecting blood coagulation – Overview of mechanisms of action


68.              Parenteral anticoagulants – indirect thrombin inhibitors (heparin)


69.              Parenteral anticoagulants – indirect factor Xa inhibitors (low molecular weight heparins and pentasaccharides)


70.              Direct oral anticoagulants: thrombin inhibitors (gatrans), factor Xa inhibitors (xabans)


71.              Antivitamins K


72.              Antidote for anticoagulants


73.              Fibrinolytics, thrombolytics


74.              Drugs affecting platelet aggregation


75.              Agents that reduce increased bleeding, haemostatic agents


76.              Drugs used in anaemia


77.              Antitussives, expectorants


78.              Histamine and antihistamines H1


79.              Antiasthmatics, drugs used in obstructive lung disease


80.              Intestinal adsorbents, disinfectants, laxatives, antidiarrheal drugs, antiinfectives, antiflatulent agents


81.              Acids and antacids, pancreatic and proteolytic enzymes


82.              Drugs used in peptic ulcer disease


83.              Prokinetics, probiotics.


84.              Emetics, antiemetics


85.              Intestinal anti-inflammatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies (idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases)


86.               Substances with hepatoprotective effect, cholagogues, dissolution of gallstones


87.              Hormones of the hypothalamus, hormones of the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis, their analogues and clinical use


88.              Thyroid and parathyroid hormones, iodine, iodides and antithyroid drugs


89.              Mineralocorticoids, their antagonists, substitution therapy


90.              Insulin and glucagon


91.              Pharmacotherapy of diabetes, overview, oral antidiabetics, and their significant side effects


92.              Glucocorticoids


93.              Androgens, anabolic steroids


94.              Oestrogens, progestogens: clinical use


95.              Contraceptives, side effects, main contraindications


96.              Uterotonics, tocolytics


97.              Hormone antagonists


98.              Drugs in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia


99.              Antibacterial agents: classification, mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, indications, resistance, principles of antibiotic treatment


100.          β-lactam antibiotics: penicillins. Beta-lactamase inhibitors


101.          β-lactam antibiotics: cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams


102.          Aminoglycosides, quinolones


103.          Glycopeptides, lipopeptides polypeptides, macrolides and azalides, lincosamides oxazolidinones


104.          Tetracyclines and glycylcyclines, rifamycins, nitroimidazoles, sulphonamides


105.          Chloramphenicol, fidaxomycin, fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin, fusidic acid, mupirocin, chemotherapeutics for urinary and intestinal infections, topical antibiotics


106.          Antituberculosis and antileprosy drugs


107.          Antifungals


108.          Antivirals in general, drugs used in hepatitis B and C, herpes infections and influenza; ribavirin


109.          Antiretrovirals, HIV therapy


110.          Antiparasitic drugs


111.          Anticancer drugs - general overview, mechanism of action


112.          Anticancer drugs - principles of therapy, combinations, adverse effects, resistance, substances used to protect healthy tissue from toxic effects of anticancer drugs


113.          Anticancer drugs - alkylating agents


114.          Anticancer drugs - antimetabolites


115.          Intercalating agents + topoisomerase inhibitors


116.          Mitosis inhibitors


117.          Anticancer drugs with combined mechanisms of action, monoclonal antibodies


118.          Hormones and antihormones in cancer treatment


119.          Platinum derivatives


120.          X-ray contrast agents and their adverse effects


121.          Disinfectants, antiseptics


122.          Drugs used for local action on the skin and mucous membranes (excluding disinfectants)


123.          Antagonists and specific antidotes for poisoning and overdose


124.          Antidotes for metal poisoning in general, intoxication with mercury, arsenic and lead compounds, and their therapy


125.          Calcium, magnesium, potassium


126.          Zinc, selenium, antioxidants


127.          Vitamins A, E, K


128.          Vitamin D and hormones affecting Ca metabolism


129.          Substances used in the treatment of osteoporosis


130.          Vitamin C, B vitamins


131.          Phytotherapy, alternative medicine (principles, significance)


Last update: prof. PharmDr. Radek Kučera, Ph.D. (08.10.2020)

Sylallabus of lectures 2020/21 see atttached file 



Pharmacology, toxicology, clinical pharmacology, pharmacotherapy, pharmacy, pharmacognosy, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomy.

Drugs and medicine. Sources of drugs. Names of drugs. Use of pharamacological agents in medicine. Drug formulations. Combination products in oral therapy.
Pharmacopoeia. Prescription writing. Prescription of CD. POM. OTC drugs. Proprietary and nonproprietary remedies and drugs. Prescribing for children?s and old patients.
Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics.
Drug administration. Lipid solubility and ionization of drugs. Fick?s-law. Movement of drugs across cellular barriers. Encephalic barrier. Placenta. Special drug delivery systems. Transdermal dosage forms. Absorption, distribution and redistribution of drugs. Bioavailability. Binding of drugs to plasma proteins. Volume of distribution. Elimination of drugs. Biotransformation of drugs. Phases. Microsomal, non-microsomal biotransformation. Cyt. P-450. Enzymes inhibition and induction. Excretion of drugs (renal, extrarenal). Enterohepatic circulation. First pass metabolism. Prodrugs.
Pharmacokinetics models. Single, two and multicompartment system. Linear and nonlinear kinetics. Zero and first order kinetics. Plasma half life, clearence, elimination constants. Bateman function. AUC. Continuous or intermittent drug administration. Infusion. Accumulation of drugs. Plateau-Css. Loading and maintenance dose.
Drug action. Specific, non-specific action. Mechanisms of action.. Primary drug targets (receptors, channels, enzymes, carriers). G proteins, second messengers. Agonists. Dose-effects relationship. Efficacy, potency. Antagonists. Drug antagonism and synergism. Partial agonism. Competitive and noncompetitive antagonism. Physiological and chemical antagonism.
Factors influencing drug kinetics and dynamics. Genetics and ethnic factors. Pharmacogenetics. Genetic polymorphism.
Interaction of drugs. Interaction drug - food.
Unwanted and adverse effects of drugs. Therap. index. Tolerance. Tachyphylaxis. Overdose. Resistance. Drug allergy and idiosyncrasy. Teratogenicity. Carcinogenicity. Treatment of poisonings. Antidotes.
Drug misuse and dependence.
Drug discovery and development. Preclinical and clinical trials. Double-blind trials. Phases. Placebo. Drug registration. Clinical pharmacokinetics. Therapeutic drugs monitoring. Use of drugs in neonates. Use of drug in children. Drugs and the elderly. Drug during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Teratogenicity. Mutagenesis, cancerogenesis. Compliance.
Drug-disease interaction. Influence of concomitant disease on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (disease of git, kidneys, liver, heart congest, failure, thyroid gl.) Therapeutic risk. Rational pharmacotherapy.


Peripheral nervous system and its transmitters.
The autonomic nervous system. Parasympathetic. Sympathetic. Enteric nervous system. Neurotransmitters, co-transmitters.
Cholinergic transmission. Acetylcholine synthesis, storage, release. Drugs affecting these events. Muscarinic receptors - agonists, antagonists. Nicotinic receptors agonists, antagonists. Nicotine. Ganglion blocking agents.
Cholinesterases. Anticholinesterases. Organophosphates. Reactivators of cholinesterases.
Neuromuscular blocking agents. Drugs influencing skeletomuscles spasms and spasticity. Dantrolen.
Noradrenergic transmission. Events in the adrenergic varicosity. Catecholamines, biotransformation. Uptake of NA. Adrenoceptors (alpha 1, alpha 2), agonists and antagonists. Selectivity and ISA. Drug affecting NA nervous.
Treatment of glaucoma. Mydriatics and cyclopegics.
5-HT (serotonin), receptors, function.
Treatment of migraine. Purine mediators and receptors. Peptides.
Nitric oxide. NO synthase. Nitrates.
Prostanoids and their analogs. COX 1 and COX 2. NSAIDs. Analgesics and antipyretics. DMARDs. Histamine. Antihistamines (anti H1).
Drugs for treatment of heart failure - vasodilators, diuretics, inotropic agents. Antidysrhytmics. V.W. classification. Adenosine, digoxin, magnesium. Antihypertensive drugs. Diuretics, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. Ca - antagonists. Renin - angiotensin system. ACE inhibitors. Activators of K-channels. Vasodilatators generally.
Drug used in angina pectoris - organic nitrates, calcium antagonists, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, nicorandil. Drugs used to treat myocardial infarction.
Atherosclerosis and lipoproteins. Lipid lowering drugs - statins, fibrates, bile acid ? binding resin.
Homeostasis and thrombosis. Vitamin K. Anticoagulations ? heparin, low-molecular-weigh heparins (LMWHs). Warfarin.
Antiplatelet agents. Fibrinolytic drugs. Antifibrinolytics and haemostatics.
The haemopoetics system. Anemias. Iron. Folic acid. Vitamin B12..Erythropoetine. Haemopoetic growth factors. Myeloid growth factors.
Drugs in treatment of asthma ? bronchodilators, anti-inflammatory agents. Drug in chronic bronchitis, expectorants, cough suppressants.
Diuretics incl. subclasses. Treatment of gastro duodenal ulcers. Emesis and ant emetics. Prokinetics. Treatment of diarrhoea, constipation, gallstones. Drug affecting biliary composition and flow. Liver protective drugs. Treatment of chronic bowel diseases. Antispasmodics. Pancreatin.
Treatment of IDDM and NIDDM. Insulins and oral antidiabetics. Treatment of obesity.
Glucocorticoids. Mineralocorticoids. Drug acting on corticosteroids synthesis.
Thyroid hormones. Drugs influencing activity of thyroid.
Bone metabolism and its disorders. Calcium homeostasis. Drug influencing bone metabolism.
The reproductive system. Female sex hormones. Contraceptive drugs. Postmenopause hormone replacement therapy. Gonadotrophines.
Drug acting on the uterus.
The male reproductive system. Androgens and antiandrogens. Anabolic steroids. Erectile dysfunction. Phosphodiesterases. Sildenafil and relative drugs. Drugs for BHP.
Hormones of hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. Poster pituitary hormones.
Drug action in CNS, targets of drugs in CNS, CNS transmitters. CNS - amino acid transmitters. Glutamate, glycine, strychnine, tetanotoxin.
Drug in Parkinson?s disease. Drug for Alzheimer?s disease and dementia. Nootropic drugs. Cerebral vasodilators.
General anaesthetics. Inhalation an. Intravenous an. Stages of anaesthetic. Perioperative drugs.
Anxiolytics and hypnotics.
Antipsychotic drugs.
Drugs in affective disorders. Antidepresant drugs. Drugs for bipolar disorder. Antiepileptic drugs.
Analgesic drugs and control of pain (opiates, opioids).
Local anesthetics.
Drug dependence and drug abuse. Nicotine and tabaco smoking. Ethanol. Methanol intoxication. Cannabinoids. Benzodiazepines. Barbiturates.
CNS stimulants and psychotomimetics (hallucinogens). Cocaine. Amphetamines. Methylxanthines. Analeptics. Hallucinogens (e.g. LSD).
Antibacterial agents. Their targets. Resistance to antibiotics. Penicillins. Cephalosporins, cephamycins. Other beta-bactams. Glycopeptides. Aminoglycosides. Macrollides. Tetracyclines. Chloramphenicol. Clindomycin. Fluoroquinolones. Streptogramins. Lincosamides. Oxalisidonones. Fusidic acid. Miscelaneous - vancomycin (glycopeptides), colistin (polymycins). Chemotherapy of git and urinary tract infections.
Sulphonamides. Trimethoprim. Antituberculosis drugs. Anileprosy agents.
Antifungal drugs. Anthelmintic drugs. Antiviral drugs (anti HIV, other antiviral drug). Immunosuppressive drugs. Immunomodulators.
Animalarial drugs. Amoebicidal drugs. Treatment of other protozoal infections.
Anticancer drugs. Combinations. Treatment schedules. Cell cycle and anticancer drugs. Rules for administrator. Adverse effects. Treatment of adverse effect.
Alkylating drugs. Antimetalolites. Cytotoxic antibiotics. Plant derivatives and miscellaneous agents. Hormones in cancer therapy. Radioactive isotopes. Miscellaneous agents.
Vitamins - water soluble, lipid soluble. Antioxidants. Essential elements - Se, Zn, Mg.
Lead-, mercury-, arsenic- intoxication. Antidotes of metal and metalloids intoxications.
The main preparations in dermatology.

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