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Course, academic year 2018/2019
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Histology and Embryology 2 - B82680 (for Dentistry)
Title in English: Histologie a embryologie 2
Guaranteed by: Institute of Histology and Embryology First Faculty of Medicine Charles University in Prague (11-00120)
Faculty: First Faculty of Medicine
Actual: from 2015
Semester: summer
Points: 8
E-Credits: 8
Examination process: summer s.:
Hours per week, examination: summer s.:1/1 C+Ex [hours/week]
Extent per academic year: 30 [hours]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: doc. MUDr. Zuzana Jirsová, CSc.
Additional information:
Note: enabled for web enrollment
Guarantor: doc. MUDr. Tomáš Kučera, Ph.D.
Attributes: Teoretický předmět
Zubní lékařství
Co-requisite : B81132, B82681
Interchangeability : B81402
Is pre-requisite for: B81145, B81144, B81148, B81152, B81153, B81404, B81405, B81140, B81141
Is interchangeable with: B81346, B83031
Last update: Ing Markéta Sochorová (19.06.2014)

Description of the microscopical structure of the nervous system, skin and sensory organs. Review of microscopic anatomy. Basic description of blastogenesis and organogenesis. Overview of the general and special teratology. The matter and scope of the histological part will be coordinated with the curriculum of anatomy and pathology.
Last update: Ivana Bucková (09.02.2015)


LECTURES Teacher: Ass. Prof. MUDr. Jirsová

                                                              MUDr. R. Becke


Teacher: MUDr. R. Becke


Tuesday  8,00-9,00   

Tuesday 9,15-10,14


Nervous system. Brain   cortex, cerebellum and spinal cord.

Structure and function of   the skin

Microscopy of the skin and   nervous system slices: H1,2 and L2,3,4,5,8



Sensory epithelium -   structure and function. Sensory organs

Structure   of the eye and eyelid. Microscopy: S1,4

Oral cavity and its   content. Structural specialization of the oral mucosa.                                                                                             


Introduction to embryology.   Fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst formation. Implantation of the   blastocyst; ectopic pregnancy

Microscopy of the lip and tongue: B1,3,4

Tonsils - structure and function. Waldeyer´s ring. Microscopy of the   palatine and lingual tonsils: B4,5. Taste buds, their distribution, chemical   sensation                                                                                                           


Development of the yolk   sac, amnion, chorion and embryonic disc

Salivary   glands. Serous and mucous cells, duct system. Saliva.

Microscopy   of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands: B6,7,8


Formation of germ layers.   Development of mesoderm and its differentiation. Development of the   notochord.

Teeth   and associated structures. Microscopy of teeth slices: B2


Development of the   cardiovascular system. Primitive blood circulation. Heart development

Tooth   development. Enamel organ, differentiation of odontoblasts. Amelogenesis and   dentinogenesis. Development of the tooth root, cementum and periodontal   ligament. Microscopy: X5


Aortic   arches and their derivatives. Fetal blood circulation, circulatory changes   after birth

Tooth   eruption. Development of permanent tooth buds. Anomalies of teeth


Development   of the digestive system. Development of foregut.

Development   of the liver and pancreas

Development of the face. Development of   the oral and nasal cavities. Cleft lip, jaw and palate. Development of the   tongue


Development of midgut and   hindgut. Fixation of intestines.

Cloaca and its   differentiation

Development   of primitive pharynx - pharyngeal clefts, pouches, arches. Development of   endocrine glands derived from stomodeum and from the primitive pharynx. Birth   defects involving the pharyngeal region


Development of the   respiratory system. Body cavities, formation of the diaphragm

Development of the skull.   Development of muscles of the orofacial region and their innervation                                                                                           


Development of the urinary system

Development   of axial skeleton, muscles and limbs


Development of gonads.   Differentiation of the genital ducts in both sexes

Development of body form   and umbilical cord. Fetal membranes                                                                                               


Neural tube and its   differentiation. Development of the spinal cord and brain vesicles

Placenta, structure and   function. Anomalies of placenta and umbilical cord     

Microscopy : X3,4                                       


Development of the eye and   ear

Intrauterine growth.   Parturition. Twins and other types of multiple pregnancies


Congenital malformations.   Critical periods in development


Last update: Ivana Bucková (17.09.2014)

Recommended Literature:

Sadler T.W.:  Langman´s Medical Embryology, Lippincot Wiliiams and Wilkins, 2006, 2011, 2012

Moore,K.L. - Persaud, P.V.N.: Before We Were Born: Essentials of Embryology and Birth Defects, 8th Ed., Saunders Elsevier, 2008, 2013

Additional Literature:

Berkovitz B.K.B., Holland G.R., Moxham B.J.: Oral Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Mosby, 2009

Nanci,A.: Ten Cate´s Oral Histology. Development, Structure and Function, Mosby, 2008


Course completion requirements
Last update: Ing Markéta Sochorová (19.06.2014)

The study is concluded by credits given in the winter (B81131 Histology and embryology 1) and summer semester (B81402 Histology and embryology 2) and the final exam taken in the summer semester.

Requirements for receiving the credit

            - obligatory attendance according to schedule

            - successful passing of written and oral tests given during practical lessons evaluating theoretical and practical knowledge of the subject

Requirements for passing the exam

            - theoretical part: oral examination of the knowledge based on the list of exam questions; the students will allot three questions concerning three main topics 

            - practical part: recognition and analysis of three histological preparations according to the list of histological preparations 

Requirements to the exam
Last update: Ing Markéta Sochorová (19.06.2014)



Cytology. Tissues

Preparation of tissues for microscopic examination

Structural organization of the cell

Cell membrane, structure and function

Cell organelles, structure and function

Intercellular junctions, cell surface specializations

Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis

Epithelial tissue, overview of the structure and function, classification

Secretory epithelium (endocrine, exocrine - types of secretion)                             

Sensory epithelium - structure and function. Myoepithelium

Connective tissue - general structure and function

Extracellular matrix - ground substance and fibers

Connective tissue proper (structure and distribution, cells and their function)

Basic structure of the cartilage. Hyaline and elastic cartilages

Basic structure of the bone. Fibrillar and lamellar bones

Intramembranous ossification

Endochondral ossification

Composition of the peripheral blood

Erythrocytes, structure and function

Leukocytes - classification, structure and function. Leukogram

Thrombocytes - development, structure and function

Lymphocytes, humoral and cellular immunity

Monocytes, mononuclear phagocyte system



Smooth muscle, structure and mechanism of contraction

Structure of skeletal muscle. Ultrastructure and function of myofibril

Structure of cardiac muscle

General structure of the nerve tissue. Glial cells

Neuron - structure and types of neurons. Synapses

Types of nerve fibers and their sheaths. Formation of the myelin sheath


Microscopical Anatomy (Special Histology)

General structure of blood vessels, types of vessels and their function

Structure and function of the lymphoid organs (thymus, lymph node, spleen)

Hypothalamo-hypophyseal system, neurohumoral regulation

Hypophysis - structure and function

Thyroid and adrenal glands - structure and function

Salivary glands - classification, structure and function. Saliva

Parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands

General structure of the oral mucosa

Tongue. Lingual papillae and glands. Taste buds

Tonsils - structure and function. Waldayer’s ring               

Tooth - general structure

Enamel - microscopical structure, amelogenesis

Dentine - microscopic structure, dentinogenesis

Cementum - structure and cementogenesis. Alveolar bone

Periodontal ligament. Gingiva, epithelial attachment        

Esophagus. General structure of the wall of the alimentary tube

Stomach, structural specialization of the mucosa

Small and large intestines, structural specialization and function

Liver - structure and function, blood circulation

Mucous layer of the respiratory ways (nasal cavities, larynx, trachea and bronchi)            

Lung, structure and function. Respiratory portion and blood-air barrier

Kidney. Nephron - structural and functional specialization of its parts

Excretory urinary passages

Testis, spermatogenesis

Ovary, oogenesis

Uterus, menstrual cycle

General structure of the skin, glands and hair                                

Brain cortex, blood-brain barrier. Cerebellum

Eye - general structure. Retina

Inner ear, structure and function



Fertilization, cleavage and early development of the blastocyst

Blastocyst and its implantation. Anomalies of implantation, ectopic pregnancy

Development of the amnion, yolk sac, chorion and embryonic disc

Development of germ layers, formation of notochord, differentiation of the mesoderm

Development of the primitive cardiovascular system

Heart development. Aortic arches and their derivatives

Fetal blood circulation

Development of the umbilical cord and placenta. Anomalies of umbilical cord and placenta

Placenta - structure and function. Fetal membranes

Primitive gut and its development

Development of the embryonic pharynx. Pharyngeal clefts and pouches

The foregut, development of the stomach, duodenum, liver and pancreas

Development of the midgut loop (herniation, rotation, retraction and fixation of the intestine)

Development of the hingut. Cloaca and its differentiation

Development of the respiratory system

Development of the urinary system

Development of the gonads

Mesonephric and paramesonephric ducts and their development in both sexes

Neuroectoderm and its differentiation. Histogenesis of the neural tube

Development of the spinal cord and brain vesicles

Development of the eye

Development of the ear

Somites and their relationship to the development of skeletal muscles. Limb development

Development of the axial skeleton. Skull and vertebral column

Stomodeum, development of the oral and nasal cavities. Development of the palate.

Development of the tongue and thyroid gland. Development anomalies

Development of teeth. Anomalies of the tooth development

Development of the face

Clefts of lip, jaw and palate. Mechanism of their development, classification

Branchial arches and their differentiation


DENTISTRY - REQUESTED KNOWLEDGE  (list of preparations)


A1       Irregular dense connective tissue (dermis), AZAN

A4       Mast cells (rat mesentery), alcian blue, nuclear red

A5       Tendon (regular dense connective tissue), HE

A6       Adipose tissue, HE

A8       Hyaline cartilage, HE

A10     Elastic cartilage, orcein + alum hematoxylin

A12     Endochondral ossification, HE

A14     Intramembranous ossification, HE

A15     Lamellar compact bone, HE

A16     Lamellar spongy bone, HE

A17     Smooth muscle, HE

A18     Skeletal muscle, HE (A19 - Heidenhain´s method)

A20     Cardiac muscle, HE



Circulatory system:

F1        Heart, ventricular wall, HE, trichrome

F2/3     Large elastic artery (aorta), cross section, HE, orcein

F5        Neuromuscular bundle (muscular arteries, vein and nerve)

            Weigert van Gieson´s method + resorcinfuchsin

F6        Large vein (vena cava inferior, muscular type), HE, green trichrome


Lymphoid system:

G1       Lymph node, HE

G2       Spleen, HE, trichrome (G3 - silver impregnation)

G4       Thymus of the child, HE


Endocrine system:

E1       Pituitary, HE

E2       Thyroid, HE

E4       Suprarenal gland, HE

E5       Islets of Langerhans, HE


Digestive system:

B1       Lip, HE, trichrome

B2       Tooth, HE

B3       Tongue, anterior part of the body, HE, trichrome

B4       Tongue, root, HE, trichrome

B5       Palatine tonsil, HE

B6       Parotid gland, HE

B7       Submandibular gland, HE, alcian blue + nuclear red

B8       Sublingual gland, HE, alcian blue + nuclear red


Digestive system:

B9       Pancreas, HE

B10     Esophagus, HE, trichrome, Heidenhain´s  hematoxylin

B12     Stomach - fundus, HE, trichrome

B15     Jejunum, HE

B16     Large intestine, HE, trichrome

B17     Appendix , HE

B18     Liver, HE, trichrome


Respiratory system:

D1       Epiglottis, HE

D2       Larynx, HE, trichrome

D3       Trachea, HE, trichrome

D4       Lung, HE, orcein + alum hematoxylin


Urinary system:

C1       Kidney, HE

C3       Ureter, HE

C4       Urinary bladder, HE, trichrome


Male reproductive system:

C6       Testis, HE

C7       Epididymis, HE

C10     Prostate, HE, trichrome, Heidenhain´s hematoxylin


Female reproductive system:

C11     Ovary, HE, trichrome

C13     Uterine tube, HE, trichrome

C14     Uterus, body, HE

C16     Vagina, HE, trichrome



H1       Thick skin (palm), HE

H2       Thin hairy skin, HE


Nervous system:

L2       Brain, Nissl´s method

L3       Cerebellum, HE

L4       Cerebellum, silver impregnation

L5       Spinal cord, HE

L8       Peripheral nerve, cross section, HE, Luxol blue + nuclear red


Sensory organs:

S1        Eye, anterior segment. HE

S4        Eyelid, HE



X3       Placenta, HE

X4       Umbilical cord, HE

X5       Development of the tooth

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