SubjectsSubjects(version: 944)
Course, academic year 2023/2024
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Biology and Genetics - B81139 (Dentistry)
Title: Biology and Genetics
Guaranteed by: Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics First Faculty of Medicine Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague (11-00160)
Faculty: First Faculty of Medicine
Actual: from 2023
Semester: winter
Points: 5
E-Credits: 5
Examination process: winter s.:
Hours per week, examination: winter s.:1/3, C+Ex [HT]
Extent per academic year: 60 [hours]
Capacity: unlimited
Min. number of students: unlimited
4EU+: no
Virtual mobility / capacity: no
State of the course: taught
Language: English
Teaching methods: full-time
Teaching methods: full-time
Explanation: Romana Mihalová;
Additional information:
Note: prefer medical statement
Guarantor: prof. MUDr. Ondřej Šeda, Ph.D.
Comes under: Compulsory for Dentistry 2.y._23/24
Attributes: Teoretický předmět
Zubní lékařství
Pre-requisite : B81129, B83031
Annotation -
Last update: Jana Kolářová (31.01.2020)
The subject specializes in selected basic biological and genetic principles and emphasizes important knowledge and practical skills in stomatology.
Last update: Jana Kolářová (05.10.2020)

Biology and genetics-introduction. Mendelian inheritance in man.

Genetics of Prokaryotes an Eukaryotes-comparison.

Cell cycle and its regulation.

Molecular genetics.


Medical genetics.

Practical training

Introduction. Mono and dihybridism, phenotypic ratios. Genetics of ABO, MN and Rh systems.

Genealogy, pedigree chart, types of inheritance in pedigrees, examples of monogenic disorders in men

Mitosis, human karyotype, cytogenetic analysis.

Meiotic division, chromosome segregation, non disjunction, virtual microscopy.

Numeric and structural chromosomal aberrations-syndromes.

Gene linkage, polygenic inheritance.

Population genetics, CHW formula, small population, genetic drift.

Molecular genetics I.

Molecular genetics II. Examples of DNA diagnostics.

Immunogenetics, transplantation principles,genetics of HLA and Rh systems.

Ontogenesis, examples from genetics of congenital defects, teratogenesis.

Examples of familial tumors, molecular genetics of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

Principles of genetic consultation, risk assessment, indications of preventive methods.

Literature -
Last update: KOT02392 (03.01.2014)

Entry requirements
Last update: KOT02392 (27.08.2008)

For the first practical training the students are asked to come to the seminary room of the Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics, Prague 2, Albertov 4 ("Purkyňův ústav"), ground floor to the right.


1. textbook: Křenová, D., Otová, B.: How to practise biological and medical genetics. Charles University in Prague, The Karolinum Press, Prague 2003;

2. notepad (blank, A4 format recommended).

Requirements to the exam
Last update: KOT02392 (16.11.2014)

1. Genotype and its variability, mutation, recombination

    Genetic control of antibody production

    Prevention and early diagnostics of congenital anomalies


2. Genotype and environment

    Mitosis, its regulation and defects

    The inheritance and biological importance of blood group systems


3. Methods of genetic analysis in experimental and human genetics

    Structure and reproduction of bacteria, importance for medicine

    The inheritance and biological importance of Rh system


4. Fundamental laws of genetics, Mendel's experiments

    Cell cycle, its regulation and defects

    Human major histocompatibility complex


5. Genealogy method

    DNA - structure and function

    Immunocompetent cells


6. Autosomal dominant inheritance in experiment and pedigrees, examples of human traits

    RNA - types, structure and function

    Genetic control of immune response


7. Autosomal recessive inheritance in experiment and pedigrees, examples of human traits

    Gene structure and function

    Transplantation rules


8. Gonosomal inheritance in experiment and pedigrees, examples of human traits

    DNA replication

    Detection and prevention of chromosomal aberrations


9. Multifactorial inheritance

    Genetic code

    Indication of chromosomal analysis


10. Human traits with multifactorial inheritance

      Protein-coding and non-coding DNA sequences

      Genetics of transplantations, transplantation rules, histocompatibility systems

11. Heritability and significance of its assessment in medicine

      Translation, post-translational protein modifications

      Syndromes of autosomal aneuploidies


12. Dihybridism, interaction of non-allelic genes, polyhybridism

      Transcription and post-transcriptional modifications of RNA in Eukaryotes

      Environmental mutagenic and teratogenic factors


13. Multiple alleles

      Genetics of aging and death

      Aims and mission of medical genetics


14. Genetic linkage

      Regulation of gene function in Prokaryotes

      Preconception prevention of congenital anomalies and genetic disorders


15. Genetic methods of linkage analysis

      Gene mutation, types and manifestation

      Tumorigenesis, cancerogenesis, cancerogens


16. Crossing-over, its mechanism and importance

      Regulation of gene function in Eukaryotes

      Genetic screening


17. Molecular basis of heritable disease

      Somatic and gametic (germline) chromosomal aberrations

      Genetic counseling and its importance


18. Chromosomal aneuploidies

      Mutagens a mutagenesis, testing of mutagenicity

      Characteristics of cancer development


19. Extrachromosomal inheritance, non-Mendelian inheritance

      Reparation mechanisms of nucleic acids

      Ethical and legal aspects of medical genetics


20. The importance and structure of Eukaryotic chromosomes

      The inborn errors of metabolism

      Population genetics, C-H-W equilibrium


21. Population polymorphisms and their causes

      Methods of nucleic acids analysis

      Chromosomal aberrations in etiology of neoplasia


22. Inbreeding, consanguineous marriage and its risks

      Chromosome number and structure, techniques of examination

      Ontogenesis of sex in mammals and its defects


23. Prenatal diagnostics of congenital anomalies

      Transcription and post-transcriptional modifications of RNA in Prokaryotes

      Teratogenesis, teratogens


24. Small populations - genetic drift, importance for evolution


      Inherited diseases of development in man, examples, partition according to causes


25. Meiosis, its regulation and defects

      Conjugation, transformation, transduction

      Reparation mechanisms of the organism and their genetic control


26. Gametogenesis

      Direct and indirect diagnostics of genetic disorders by nucleic acid analysis

      Causes of chromosomal aberration


27. Genealogical methods

      The importance and structure of chromosomes of Prokaryotes

      Prenatal diagnostics


28. Human karyotype, methods of its examination

      Structure and function of Eukaryotic cell

      Characteristics of cancer cells


29. Aberrations of chromosome number, their causes and clinical presentation

      Cell signaling pathways

      Familial tumors


30. Syndromes of gonosome aneuploidies

      Tumor-supressor genes

      Structure and function of Prokaryotes


31. Aberrations affecting chromosome structure

      Protooncogenes, oncogenes

      Cultivation of cells and tissues in vitro, importance in medicine


32. Chromosomal sex determination

      Genetic regulation in multicellular organisms

      Prenatal screening of congenital anomalies

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