Thesis (Selection of subject)Thesis (Selection of subject)(version: 348)
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The relationship between education and labour force structure in African countries: gender comparison
Thesis title in Czech: Souvislost mezi vzděláním a strukturou africké pracovní síly: genderové srovnání
Thesis title in English: The relationship between education and labour force structure in African countries: gender comparison
Key words: vzdělání, účast na trhu práce, zaměstnanost, genderová nerovnost, výběr povolání
English key words: education, labor force participation, employment, gender disparity, choice of occupation
Academic year of topic announcement: 2019/2020
Type of assignment: Bachelor's thesis
Thesis language: angličtina
Department: Institute of Economic Studies (23-IES)
Supervisor: doc. PhDr. Julie Chytilová, Ph.D.
Author: hidden - assigned by the advisor
Date of registration: 11.05.2020
Date of assignment: 11.05.2020
Date and time of defence: 08.09.2021 09:00
Venue of defence: Opletalova - Opletalova 26, O206, Opletalova - místn. č. 206
Date of electronic submission:26.07.2021
Date of proceeded defence: 08.09.2021
Reviewers: Mgr. Marek Šedivý
 
 
 
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References

1. ARBACHE, Jorge Saba, Alexandre KOLEV and Ewa FILIPIAK. Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Market. 2010.
2. Dolado, Juan J., et al. “Where Do Women Work?: Analysing Patterns in Occupational Segregation by Gender.” Annales D'Économie Et De Statistique, no. 71/72, 2003,
pp. 293–315. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/20079056. Accessed 9 May 2020.
3. Glenn, Norval D., and Charles N. Weaver. “Further Evidence on Education and Job Satisfaction.” Social Forces, vol. 61, no. 1, 1982, pp. 46–55. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2578073. Accessed 9 May 2020.
4. MINCER, Jacob. Education and Unemployment. National Bureau of Economic Research, 1991.
5. SIANESI, Barbara a John VAN REENEN. The returns to education: a review of the empirical macro-economic literature. THE INSTITUTE FOR FISCAL STUDIES, 2002.
6. WOOLDRIDGE, Jeffrey M. Introductory econometrics: A modern approach. 5th edition.
Preliminary scope of work
Research question and motivation
Access to education is one of the basic human rights and its importance cannot be denied. Not only lower incidence of unemployment could be observed for more educated people (Mincer, 1991), but also a higher job satisfaction (Glenn and Weaver, 1982). Education also enhances productivity as many studies suggest and is not just a signaling tool for the employers (Barbara Sianesi and John van Reenen, 2002). However, despite the desirable relationships between education and the variables mentioned above, the magnitudes differ across genders and countries. The gender discrepancy could be explained by the fact that women are seeking for more flexible work arrangements even in expense of lower wage, which possibly stem from women’s prevalent role in family responsibilities (Petrongolo and Ronchi, 2020). Another important factor might be gender discrimination, which makes the process of job searching even more difficult. As a consequence, occupational segregation between genders could be observed, where women are overrepresented in lower paid jobs (Tolado, Felgueroso and Jimeno, 2003).

Contribution
The research will be conducted on African countries as here, the education is lacking the most. The aim of the thesis is to show the relationship between education and the allocation of people in the labor market or more precisely the labor force participation, unemployment rate and the type of occupation. Studying these relationships is important as each gives us a different perspective on the problematic and combining the findings can give us a compacted insight on the relationship between education and the country’s labor market structure, which can be very useful for making suggestions about the role and importance of education in researched countries. In addition, comparison between genders will be conducted, which could potentially refer us to some gender inequality issues within the countries. Albeit some studies have already covered the gender inequality issues in Africa’s labor market, however most of them are interested in the connection between education and the choice of occupation, through which the gender wage gap is explained (Kabubo-Mariara, 2003, Arbache, Kolev and Filipiak , 2010). More comprehensive understanding of the education and its relation to the gender inequality in Africa’s labor market is missing, which is the main contribution of the thesis.

Methodology
For the empirical analysis, I will be using micro-data obtained from the surveys conducted between years 2016 and 2018 in 34 African countries by the research institution Afrobarometer. Despite not having data for all African countries, the selection of countries is well balanced for the research and the conclusion of the thesis should not be affected. The data contains a sample of 1200 – 2400 people in each country, which is a reasonable size. The standard econometric models will be applied, with dependent variables employment status, willingness to work and type of occupation. The goal is to estimate the effect of the variable education on the probability of occurrence of the dependent variables, so in addition possible significant variables such as age, religion or position in the household will be used for the estimation. Moreover, the analysis will be performed separately for men and women with the goal of comparing the results.

Outline
1. Review of labor market situation in the countries of interest
2. Review of the literature
3. Data and variables of the interest
4. Review of the econometric models used for the analysis
5. Empirical results
6. Conclusions
7. References

Preliminary scope of work in English
Research question and motivation
Access to education is one of the basic human rights and its importance cannot be denied. Not only lower incidence of unemployment could be observed for more educated people (Mincer, 1991), but also a higher job satisfaction (Glenn and Weaver, 1982). Education also enhances productivity as many studies suggest and is not just a signaling tool for the employers (Barbara Sianesi and John van Reenen, 2002). However, despite the desirable relationships between education and the variables mentioned above, the magnitudes differ across genders and countries. The gender discrepancy could be explained by the fact that women are seeking for more flexible work arrangements even in expense of lower wage, which possibly stem from women’s prevalent role in family responsibilities (Petrongolo and Ronchi, 2020). Another important factor might be gender discrimination, which makes the process of job searching even more difficult. As a consequence, occupational segregation between genders could be observed, where women are overrepresented in lower paid jobs (Tolado, Felgueroso and Jimeno, 2003).

Contribution
The research will be conducted on African countries as here, the education is lacking the most. The aim of the thesis is to show the relationship between education and the allocation of people in the labor market or more precisely the labor force participation, unemployment rate and the type of occupation. Studying these relationships is important as each gives us a different perspective on the problematic and combining the findings can give us a compacted insight on the relationship between education and the country’s labor market structure, which can be very useful for making suggestions about the role and importance of education in researched countries. In addition, comparison between genders will be conducted, which could potentially refer us to some gender inequality issues within the countries. Albeit some studies have already covered the gender inequality issues in Africa’s labor market, however most of them are interested in the connection between education and the choice of occupation, through which the gender wage gap is explained (Kabubo-Mariara, 2003, Arbache, Kolev and Filipiak , 2010). More comprehensive understanding of the education and its relation to the gender inequality in Africa’s labor market is missing, which is the main contribution of the thesis.

Methodology
For the empirical analysis, I will be using micro-data obtained from the surveys conducted between years 2016 and 2018 in 34 African countries by the research institution Afrobarometer. Despite not having data for all African countries, the selection of countries is well balanced for the research and the conclusion of the thesis should not be affected. The data contains a sample of 1200 – 2400 people in each country, which is a reasonable size. The standard econometric models will be applied, with dependent variables employment status, willingness to work and type of occupation. The goal is to estimate the effect of the variable education on the probability of occurrence of the dependent variables, so in addition possible significant variables such as age, religion or position in the household will be used for the estimation. Moreover, the analysis will be performed separately for men and women with the goal of comparing the results.

Outline
1. Review of labor market situation in the countries of interest
2. Review of the literature
3. Data and variables of the interest
4. Review of the econometric models used for the analysis
5. Empirical results
6. Conclusions
7. References
 
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