Gender differences under competitive pressure: Evidence from skittles
|Thesis title in Czech:||Rozdíly mezi muži a ženami pod kompetitivním tlakem:
Evidence z kuželek
|Thesis title in English:||Gender differences under competitive pressure:
Evidence from skittles
|Academic year of topic announcement:||2017/2018|
|Type of assignment:||Bachelor's thesis|
|Department:||Institute of Economic Studies (23-IES)|
|Supervisor:||PhDr. Václav Korbel, Ph.D.|
|Author:||hidden - assigned by the advisor|
|Date of registration:||12.06.2018|
|Date of assignment:||12.06.2018|
|Date and time of defence:||11.06.2019 09:00|
|Venue of defence:||Opletalova - Opletalova 26, O314, Opletalova - místn. č. 314|
|Date of electronic submission:||09.05.2019|
|Date of proceeded defence:||11.06.2019|
|Reviewers:||PhDr. Lenka Šťastná, Ph.D.|
Buser, Thomas, Muriel Niederle, and Hessel Oosterbeek. "Gender, competitiveness, and career choices." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 129.3 (2014): 1409-1447. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/qje/article/129/3/1409/1817134
Flory, Jeffrey A., Andreas Leibbrandt, and John A. List. "Do competitive workplaces deter female workers? A large-scale natural field experiment on job entry decisions." The Review of Economic Studies 82.1 (2014): 122-155. Available at: https://academic.oup.com/restud/article/82/1/122/1545901
Jurajda, Štěpán, and Daniel Münich. "Gender gap in performance under competitive pressure: Admissions to Czech universities." American Economic Review 101.3 (2011): 514-18. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/29783799.pdf
Cahlíková, Jana, Lubomír Cingl, and Ian Levely. “How Stress Affects Performance and Competitiveness across Gender.” Max Planck Institute for Tax Law and Public Finance Working Paper (2017). Available at: http://www.tax.mpg.de/RePEc/mpi/wpaper/TAX-MPG-RPS-2017-01.pdf
Niederle, Muriel, and Lise Vesterlund. “Gender and Competition” Annual Review of Economics 2011. 3:601–30. Available at: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev-economics-111809-125122
|Preliminary scope of work in English|
|Research question and motivation
An important line in research has recently provided a possible explanation of gender imbalances across various fields. Multiple studies have concluded (e.g. Niederle, Vesterlund, 2011) that men react more favourably to competition than women, are more inclined to compete and therefore are more likely to undergo stressful situations. Women, on the other hand, tend to avoid these situations as their competitiveness seems not to be as high. In practice, women often do not win competitions, because they do not enter them in the first place. As another study shows (Buser, Niederle, Oosterbeek, 2014), although boys and girls in secondary schools in the Netherlands show similar abilities, boys choose much more ambitious fields of study. This is considered as one of possible reasons of the female wage gap (Cahlíková, Cingl, Levely, 2017). Another subject of research is whether people react differently to stress across gender once they appear in these competitive situations. Cahlíková, Cingl, Levely (2017) showed in a lab setting that indeed there are important gender differences in response to stressful situations. However, there is little evidence from real settings. In my thesis, I will aspire to investigate these relationships and focus on examining the following questions:
• Does behavior in stressful environments differ across gender?
• Does a difference in approach to competition across gender influence their participation in stressful situations?
This thesis should further the knowledge on the topic of gender differences in competition and behavior in stressful situations. It should contribute to better understanding of these phenomena while at least partly filling the existing gaps in the field. This will be done by analyzing a dataset from a unique and slightly unusual field of skittles (ninepins).
In my thesis, I will collect data from the top skittles league in Czech Republic, which is played by both men and women. Since each of the games is played against an opponent of different skillset, the pressure under which people have to play is different. In addition to that, in skittles the pressure is to some extent exogenous due to no direct interaction between the players. I will analyze how performance of a player changes based on the opponent they are currently playing against. Thanks to a (exogenous) change in rules, I will be able to examine this question in two situations – low and high pressure. Before the change, the winner was the player with higher score at the end of the game (low pressure). After the change, players collect points during the game in shorter passages of throws. This raises the importance of each throw (high pressure). I will manually collect the data for several seasons which are available at https://www.kuzelky.cz/archivy/.
2. Overview of existing literature
4. Data analysis