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Wage inequality among young college graduates: Can we find any evidence for reverse gender wage differential?
Název práce v češtině: Genderová nerovnost mezi platy vysokoškolsky vzdělaných: Lze nalézt případy pozitivní diskriminace?
Název v anglickém jazyce: Wage inequality among young college graduates: Can we find any evidence for reverse gender wage differential?
Klíčová slova: Spojené Státy, rozdíl v odměňování žen a mužů, genderová nerovnost, diskriminace, vysoká škola, muži, ženy
Klíčová slova anglicky: United States, gender wage gap, gender wage differential, gender inequality, discrimination, college, men, women
Akademický rok vypsání: 2019/2020
Typ práce: bakalářská práce
Jazyk práce: angličtina
Ústav: Institut ekonomických studií (23-IES)
Vedoucí / školitel: PhDr. Martina Mysíková, Ph.D.
Řešitel: skrytý - zadáno vedoucím/školitelem
Datum přihlášení: 30.01.2020
Datum zadání: 30.01.2020
Datum a čas obhajoby: 10.06.2020 09:00
Datum odevzdání elektronické podoby:07.05.2020
Datum proběhlé obhajoby: 10.06.2020
Oponenti: Mgr. Lenka Šlegerová
Kontrola URKUND:
Seznam odborné literatury
BLACK, Dan A., et al. Gender wage disparities among the highly educated. Journal of human resources, 2008, 43.3: 630-659.
LESLIE, Lisa M.; MANCHESTER, Colleen Flaherty; DAHM, Patricia C. Why and when does the gender gap reverse? Diversity goals and the pay premium for high potential women. Academy of Management Journal, 2017, 60.2: 402-432.
WILLIAMS, Wendy M.; CECI, Stephen J. National hiring experiments reveal 2: 1 faculty preference for women on STEM tenure track. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2015, 112.17: 5360-5365.
BLAU, Francine D.; KAHN, Lawrence M. The gender wage gap: Extent, trends, and explanations. Journal of Economic Literature, 2017, 55.3: 789-865.
XU, Yonghong. Focusing on women in STEM: A longitudinal examination of gender-based earning gap of college graduates. The Journal of Higher Education, 2015, 86.4: 489-523.
WEICHSELBAUMER, Doris; WINTER‐EBMER, Rudolf. A meta‐analysis of the international gender wage gap. Journal of Economic Surveys, 2005, 19.3: 479-511.
Hill, A. D., Upadhyay, A. D., & Beekun, R. I. 2015. Do female and ethnically diverse executives endure inequity in the CEO position or do they benefit from their minority status? An empirical examination. Strategic Management Journal, 36: 1115–1134.
Předběžná náplň práce v anglickém jazyce
Research question and motivation
Since the 1960s, gender wage inequality has received extensive attention from researches across the world. The results of their work have overwhelmingly shown unexplained gender wage differential with the mean around 20%, as reported in meta-study done by Weichselbaumer and Winter-Ebmer (2005). The consistency of the results had rightfully left the imprint on the narrative in the society, and nowadays, it is taken as a fact that women earn less than men even if we adjust the gap for the important characteristics like work experience, hours worked, education, race, etc.

However, few studies have recently come out claiming that in some specific cases, the preferences for males and females reverse as the hiring experiment for STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) tenure positions done by Williams and Ceci (2015) has shown. Other studies went even further and showed that when women are in high demand, a firm might be willing to pay a premium to retain them (see, for instance, Leslie et al., 2017, or Hill et al., 2015).

In my thesis, I aim to find out how pervasive the phenomenon of reverse wage differential truly is, that is whether we can find it in less prestigious occupation (compared to CEOs) where women might be rare and thus possibly in demand such as engineering or computer science. I am going to focus on young college graduates as that is the group where employers might be willing to pay more to secure talented women in fields where there are not enough women due to their insufficient supply (commonly referred as a pipeline problem).

The topic of reverse gender wage differential is relatively new and uncharted. To my best knowledge, it has only been found using specialized samples of people from the elite occupations. My contribution to the existing literature would be to test whether it is more common and whether we can find any evidence in lower occupational positions as well.

I believe that understanding the reverse gender wage gap phenomenon is crucial for the future employment policies as well as the society´s narrative since it is likely that if the pipeline problem in some fields, i.e., STEM, won´t change, this phenomenon will become more common due to the ever-increasing pressure on organizations to reduce gender inequality.

I am going to use the U.S. data from 2017 National Survey of College Graduates. I will estimate the gender wage gap (GWG) using Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. In doing so, I will run separate OLS wage regressions for men and women, controlling for race, education, region, industry, job characteristics, employer characteristics, experience, attitudes, and demographics. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition allows to separate the part of the GWG explained by measurable and observed characteristics, leaving us with the unexplained part, also called the adjusted GWG.

1. Introduction
2. Literature review
3. Methodology – overview of used methods
4. Data – information about the data used and selected variables
5. Empirical model
6. Conclusion

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