The Relationship between Success in North American Sports and Birth Rates
|Název práce v češtině:||Vztah úspěchu v severoamerických sportech a porodnosti|
|Název v anglickém jazyce:||The Relationship between Success in North American Sports and Birth Rates|
|Klíčová slova:||sportovní výsledky, porodnost, nečekanost, Severní Amerika, hlavní americké sporty|
|Klíčová slova anglicky:||Sport outcomes, natality, unexpectedness, North America, Major Sport Competitions|
|Akademický rok vypsání:||2019/2020|
|Typ práce:||bakalářská práce|
|Ústav:||Institut ekonomických studií (23-IES)|
|Vedoucí / školitel:||PhDr. Radek Janhuba, M.A., Ph.D.|
|Řešitel:||skrytý - zadáno vedoucím/školitelem|
|Datum a čas obhajoby:||07.09.2021 09:00|
|Místo konání obhajoby:||Opletalova - Opletalova 26, O314, Opletalova - místn. č. 314|
|Datum odevzdání elektronické podoby:||28.07.2021|
|Datum proběhlé obhajoby:||07.09.2021|
|Oponenti:||Mgr. Tomáš Kučera|
|Seznam odborné literatury|
|BERNHARDT, P. C., DABBS, J. M. Jr., FIELDEN, J. A., & LUTTER, C. D. 1998. “Testosterone Changes during Vicarious Experiences of Winning and Losing Among Fans at Sporting Events”. Physiology & Behavior, 65(1), 59–62
BRYSON, A. FRICK, B. and SIMMONS, R. 2015. “Sports Economics: It May be Fun but What's the Point?”. National Institute Economic Review, 232, R1-R3.
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION. 2020. “Natality Information: Live Births”. CDC WONDER. Available at: http://wonder.cdc.gov/natality.html
GORELIK, G., and BJORKLUND, D. F. 2015. “The Effect of Competition on Men’s Self-Reported Sexual Interest”. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 1(3), 141–49.
HAYWARD, G. M., & RYBIŃSKA, A. 2017. “Super Bowl Babies: Do Counties with Super Bowl Winning Teams Experience Increases in Births Nine Months Later?”. Socius: sociological research for a dynamic world, 3. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5548444/
JANHUBA, R. 2019. “Do victories and losses matter? Effects of football on life satisfaction”. Journal of Economic Psychology ,75.
JUKIC A. M., BAIRD D. D., WEINBERG C. R., MCCONNAGHEY D. R., & WILCOX, A. J. 2013. “Length of Human Pregnancy and Contributors to Its Natural Variation”. Human Reproduction, 28(10), 2848–55.
INOUE, Y. SATO, M. FILO, K. DU, J. & FUNK. 2017. “Sport spectatorship and life satisfaction: A multi-country investigation”. Journal of Sport Management, 31(4), 419-32. Available at: https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/jsm/31/4/article-p419.xml LUCAS, R. E. 2014. Life Satisfaction of U.S. Counties Predicts Population Growth. Soc Psychol Personal Sci, 5(4), 383-88.
MONTESINOS, J. et all. 2013. “Barcelona Baby Boom: Does Sporting Success Affect Birth Rate?”. British Medical Journal, 347(7938).
SCHULTZ, B., & SHEFFER, M. L., eds. 2016. Sport and Religion in the Twenty-First Century. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
WOOLDRIFGE, J. M. 2016. Introductory Econometrics: A Modern Approach. 6th ed. Mason: Thomson/South-Western
|Předběžná náplň práce v anglickém jazyce|
|Research question and motivation
Is there a significant relationship between overall victories in Major North American Sports and birth rates in the relevant territorial units?
Sports are ingrained in North American culture (Schultz and Sheffer 2016). Large sport events, like final matches of major competitions, entertain tens of thousands fans present at stadiums, as well as millions in front of their TV sets causing the price of commercials, most notably during Super Bowl, to reach record heights (Bryson et all, 2015). Since fans tend to emotionally experience accomplishments of their favourite teams, it is worth of examining how the outcomes of these competitions affect the behaviour on population level. Inoue et all (2017) claim that life spectating the game have a positive effect on life satisfaction of the spectator. Furthermore, Janhuba (2019) suggests that unexpected wins of college football teams have positive effects on life satisfaction of surrounding communities.
One of not yet well-documented fields of interest, is the question of interplay between sport results and birth rates. As Lucas (2014) shows that U.S. counties with higher levels of life satisfaction grew at substantially faster rates than those with low life satisfaction, there is rationale for possible relationship. Several authors have so far addressed the issue. Montesinos et al. (2013) observed a significant increase in birth rates in Catalonia nine months after a local football team reached a Champions League Final in a dramatic fashion. Less conclusive findings were obtained in an article by Hayward and Rybinska (2017) who studied the number of new-borns in country counties of Super Bowl winners nine months after winning the trophy. Other studies confirm the positive effect of a favourable outcome of a sport event on the level of testosterone of a fan (Bernhardt et al. 1998) and increased fan interest in sexual stimuli (Gorelik and Bjorklund 2015). The published findings support the claim that large sporting events may have the potential to function as exogenous influences on birth rate in the population of interest.
This work deals with the comparison of the strength of the relationship between overall victories and birth rates in the respective territorial units (relevant country counties) in the target time period after winning a trophy in the major North American competitions, namely National Football League (NFL – Super Bowl), National Basketball Association (NBA – Championship), Major League Baseball (MLB – World Series) and National Hockey League (NHL – Stanley Cup). I hypothetically assume that winning a trophy in a major North American competition has a positive effect on birth rate in the relevant territorial unit, while the strength of the relationship will be commensurate with popularity of the sport.
The published research on the relationship between successes in major North American professional leagues and birth rates analysed data separately for each sports league, with some studies addressing specific successes. If I apply adjusted methodology in parallel to four professional leagues over a longer period, I can compare the data obtained and thus consolidate previous studies on the topic.
In the theoretical part of the research, the findings from published research will be summarized and used to compare the previous results with data obtained in the thesis. The empirical part of the research will be realized through econometric analysis applied to the obtained datasets. The thesis will use data on playoff results in selected North American sports in the recent period (databases of NFL, NBA, MLB and NHL) and statistical data on birth rates in the US from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC WONDER database) broken down by time periods and territorial units. To evaluate the results, the dataset will include data from NFL, NBA, MLB and NHL, which will make it possible to assess the strength of the relationship between trophy gain and birth rate in a selected sport. Territorial units will be selected according to the location of the stadium of the winning team. The birth rate in the target time period, which will correspond to the published average 269 days of pregnancy (Jukic et al. 2013) after winning a trophy, will be compared with a set control period, the length of which will correspond to similar studies.
2. Literature Review
3. Theoretical Background