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Consequences of Implementation of Video Assistant Referee in Fortuna Liga
Název práce v češtině: Důsledky zavedení videorozhodčího (VAR) ve Fortuna Lize
Název v anglickém jazyce: Consequences of Implementation of Video Assistant Referee in Fortuna Liga
Akademický rok vypsání: 2019/2020
Typ práce: bakalářská práce
Jazyk práce: angličtina
Ústav: Institut ekonomických studií (23-IES)
Vedoucí / školitel: prof. PhDr. Ladislav Krištoufek, Ph.D.
Řešitel: skrytý - zadáno vedoucím/školitelem
Datum přihlášení: 04.05.2020
Datum zadání: 04.05.2020
Datum a čas obhajoby: 07.06.2022 09:00
Místo konání obhajoby: Opletalova - Opletalova 26, O105, Opletalova - místn. č. 105
Datum odevzdání elektronické podoby:03.05.2022
Datum proběhlé obhajoby: 07.06.2022
Oponenti: Mgr. Ing. Matěj Nevrla
Kontrola URKUND:
Seznam odborné literatury
Ai, Kun & Oldrich, Racek & Tan, Hai & Xu, Peng. (2020). Sustainable Innovation in Football Referee Training in Czech Republic. Sustainability. 12. 2821. 10.3390/su12072821.
Fédération Internationale de Football Association. (2019). Laws of the game: Video Assistant Referee (VAR) protocol (pp. 138–148). Zurich: FIFA
Gallardo, Manuel & Liaw, Shu-Sheng & Sánchez-Franco, Manuel J. & Fernández Ruiz, Marta & Arteaga Sánchez, Rocío. (2015). Analysis of FIFA referees and assistant referees’ motivational factors towards the Multimedia Teaching Materials. Education and Information Technologies. 22. 10.1007/s10639-015-9460-y.
Klir Jonas (2019). Moderní technologie ve fotbale a jejich využití z pozice rozhodčích.
Klucky Jakub. (2018). Videorozhodčí ve fotbale.
Peñas, Carlos & Rey, Ezequiel & Kalén, Anton. (2019). How does Video Assistant Referee (VAR) modify the game in elite soccer?. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 19. 646-653. 10.1080/24748668.2019.1646521.
Spagnolo, Paolo & Mazzeo, Pier Luigi & Leo, Marco & Nitti, Massimiliano & Stella, Ettore & Distante, Arcangelo. (2014). On-Field Testing and Evaluation of a Goal-Line Technology System. Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. 71. 67-90. 10.1007/978-3-319-09396-3_4.
Spitz, J., Moors, P., Wagemans, J. et al. The impact of video speed on the decision-making process of sports officials. Cogn. Research 3, 16 (2018).
Terekli, Mustafa & Çobanoğlu, Halil Orbay. (2019). Mental Education of Football Referees: Mental Suitcase of Modern Football Referees. International Education Studies. 12. 105. 10.5539/ies.v12n3p105.
Ugondo Iorper Peter | Tsokwa Maggai "Interpreting Video Assistant Referee and Goal-Line Technology Communication: The PitchBased Referees Perspectives" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456- 6470, Volume-3 | Issue-4, June 2019, pp.1058-1062
Předběžná náplň práce v anglickém jazyce
Research question and motivation
Nowadays, football managers, analysts as well as betting companies frequently use data to predict what will happen on the pitch. To be the best in top-level football, one need to utilize the information. Even the smallest detail might be crucial. I suppose that the implementation of Video Assistant Referee (VAR) in Fortuna Liga (Czech First Football League) creates several differences in the game conception, referring to the study of Lago-Penas Carlos, Rey Ezequiel and Kalen Anton from 2019, whose research, concerning the matches in Italy and Germany, revealed small biases in match statistics (dependent variables of models from econometric perspective) before and after the application of VAR. However, they did not analyze some biases which I believe should be investigated such as number of individual mistakes made by a referee or various approaches to tempo of the game (their variable was represented only by number of minutes of the additional time). I assume that the first mentioned variable is important from the behavioral aspect of referees and the second from whole game approach and tactics. Moreover, their linear models seem to be oversimplified (other independent variables that might have upgraded their models were not considered). My aim is to uncover nuances, which have an impact on the game and occur thanks to the implementation of VAR and try to reveal their causes.

Essential questions of the thesis: What is the impact of the implementation of VAR in Fortuna Liga i.e. how does its usage change the game? What are the positive and negative biases of chosen match statistics such as amount of goals and cards or tempo of the game created by VAR implementation? Is the cause of these biases connected to the behavioral aspects of referees or players? Do these biases create any negative effect and if so, can it be reduced?

The match statistics (dependent variables) selected for examination are: amount of goals, amount of yellow cards awarded, amount of red cards awarded, number of individual mistakes made by a referee, tempo of the game (represented by total time of the play, number of minutes of additional time, number of attacks or number of passes), number of penalties and amount of fees paid by the club for the strikes on the stand. Other factors will be considered as independent variables and I will use some of them for each regression. Example of other factors: number of dangerous attacks, number of shoots, riskiness of the ultras etc.

I would like to briefly introduce a part of my hypotheses including expected relationship with the other factors. Considering the number of yellow cards in a particular match as a dependent variable, my hypothesis is: I assume the number of yellow cards in matches with VAR to decrease, because players might be aware of video technology and thus might be more cautious. The other factors included in the final regression could be: importance of the match, average number of yellow cards received per match by a particular team and given by a particular referee and the number of fouls during the match.
Another match statistic that I would like to test is the number of individual mistakes made by the referee. I divide this statistic into two categories: i) general number of individual mistakes (regardless of whether the VAR resolved them or not), ii) number of individual mistakes where the VAR could intervene. My hypotheses are: i) I suppose that in matches with VAR the number of individual mistakes actually increases, ii) I assume that the intervention of VAR reduces the number of individual mistakes. If the hypothesis i) is not rejected, it might be the signal that in matches where the VAR is used referees take on less responsibility i.e. VAR intervenes in situations which would otherwise be clear for the referee. This way the decision-making ability of referees as well as the tempo of the game (mentioned above) could naturally decrease. I would like to investigate this hypothesis from both econometric and behavioral aspect. The other factors included in the final regression could be: importance of the match, experience of the referee and number of incidents that happened during the match.

It would be interesting to indicate the change of the impact of variables such as individual mistakes of referees or number of cards awarded over time. By comparing the results from different seasons or half-seasons it can be demonstrated how rapidly referees and players get used to the presence of VAR.

In practice: my thesis could help football fans and betters to understand the way in which modern football is approaching, the bookmakers to modify the courses in matches, where VAR is applied the Czech football authorities to think of ways to improve education and training of referees. In the case of Czech football, similar econometric research does not exist yet. All studies that I have found are rather descriptive and in the form of a questionnaire such as the work of Jakub Klucky from 2018 or Jonas Klir from 2019. In addition, from a wider perspective, the outcome of my study could support the research of Spitz, J., Moors, P., Wagemans, J., & Helsen, W. F. from 2018 who investigated the relationship between the speed of the camera and decision-making process of sports officials (positive correlation between the usage of VAR and number of red cards supports their study).

I am going to work with the data from the following portals: fortunaliga.cz, livesport.cz, lfafotbal.cz, rozhodcifotbal.cz and instat.football.com. The essential part of data will consist of approximately 600 matches (Fortuna Liga, seasons: 2018/19,2019/20 and half of 2020/21 season), which can be divided into two categories - matches, where VAR was used and those, where it wasn’t. I will combine the data from the portals using MS Excel to get about 30 pieces of information about each match. In the crucial research part of the thesis, I would like to use R Studio to gradually construct multiple econometric regressions that will reveal the strength of the relationship between chosen match statistic and the presence of VAR (independent binary variable), considering other factors that are supposed to influence the relationship. These regressions might or might not reject my hypothesis.

1. Abstract
2. Introduction of Video Assistant Referee
2.1. What is VAR
2.2. History of VAR
2.2.1. First usage of VAR
2.2.2. First usage of VAR in Czech Republic
2.2.3. Research in Leuven
2.3. Methodology of VAR
2.3.1. Official FIFA protocol
2.3.2. Communication regulations between VAR and pitch-based referees
2.4. Comparison of VAR and Goal Line Technology
3. Main research
3.1. Literature, hypotheses and motivation
3.1.1. Description of researched game statistics i.e. dependent variables
3.1.2. List of hypotheses
3.1.3. Motivation of the research
3.1.4. Existing relevant literature
3.2. Methodology
3.2.1. Description of the data, process of extracting data
3.2.2. Compilation of regressions
3.2.3. Expected relationships between dependent and independent variables
3.3. Results
3.3.1. Rejecting/non rejecting hypotheses
3.3.2. How the results can be interpreted, positive and negative effects of VAR
3.3.3. Behavioral aspects
3.3.4. Annual changes
4. Conclusion
4.1. Summary of the results
4.2. Implications for practice
5. References
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