Témata prací (Výběr práce)Témata prací (Výběr práce)(verze: 368)
Detail práce
   Přihlásit přes CAS
European Defence Industry in Times of Austerity
Název práce v češtině: European Defence Industry in Times of Austerity
Název v anglickém jazyce: European Defence Industry in Times of Austerity
Klíčová slova: obranný průmysl, evropská obranná průmyslová základna, obranná integrace, restrukturalizace, Německo, Francie, Velká Británie
Klíčová slova anglicky: Defence industry, European Defence Industrial Base, Defence Integration, Restructuring, Germany, France, the United Kingdom.
Akademický rok vypsání: 2014/2015
Typ práce: diplomová práce
Jazyk práce: angličtina
Ústav: Katedra mezinárodních vztahů (23-KMV)
Vedoucí / školitel: doc. PhDr. Vít Střítecký, M.Phil., Ph.D.
Řešitel: skrytý - zadáno vedoucím/školitelem
Datum přihlášení: 01.06.2015
Datum zadání: 01.06.2015
Datum a čas obhajoby: 26.06.2017 08:30
Místo konání obhajoby: Jinonice - U Kříže 8, J3093, Jinonice - místn. č. 3093
Datum odevzdání elektronické podoby:19.05.2017
Datum proběhlé obhajoby: 26.06.2017
Oponenti: PhDr. Jan Beneš, Ph.D.
 
 
 
Kontrola URKUND:
Seznam odborné literatury
BOOKS:
Bialos, Jeffrey P., Christine E. Fisher, Stuart Koehl, and Christer Lennart Mossberg. Fortresses and icebergs: the evolution of the transatlantic defense market and the implications for U.S. national security policy. Washington, D.C.: Center for Transatlantic Relations, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 2009
Jauhiainen,Jussi S., Luc Mampaey. Post-cold war conversion in Europe: defence restructuring in the 1990s and the regional dimension, LES RAPPORTS DU GRIP : 1999
Haas, Ernst B. 1958. The uniting of Europe: political, social, and economic forces, 1950-1957. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press
Hartley, Keith. “The Arms Industry, Procurement and Industrial Policies”, Chapter 33 in Handbook of Defense Economics, Volume 2, edited by Sandler and Hartley, 2007
Hebert, J. La transformation du systиme franзais de production d’armement : une vue d’ensemble, in Hebert, J., Pascallon, P. (eds), La politique industrielle d’armement et de dйfense de la Vиme Rйpublique. Evolution, bilan et perspectives, Paris, L’Harmattan. 2010
Howorth, Joulon. Security and Defence Policy in the European Union. London & New York: Palgrave, 2007
Hyde-Price, Adrian, European Security in the Twenty-First Century: The Challenge of Multipolarity. London: Routledge, 2007
Lember, M. Introduction, in Lember et al. (eds), Public Procurement, Innovation and Policy, Berlin, Springer-Verlag., 2014
Mayer, Hartmut and Henri Vogt (Ed.) A Responsible Europe? . Palgrave Macmillan, August 2004.
Mearsheimer, Jon J. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics. New York: W.W. Norton, 2001
Minuz, Manuel. “France: The Frustrated Leader” in National Vision of EU Defence Policy: Common Denominators and Misunderstandings, edited by Federico Santopinto and Megan Price, 6-26. Centre for European Policy Studies, 2013

Morgenthau, Hans. Politics Among Nations. The Struggle for Power and Peace. brief edition, revised by Kenneth Thompson, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993

Porter, M. E. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press, 1990.

Waltz, Kenneth. Theory of International Politics. Addison-Wesley, 1979

Whitman, Richard G. and Manners, I. The Foreign Policies of European Union Member States. Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2000.
Wurzer, Christian. “A German vision of CSDP: “It’s taking part that counts” in National Vision of EU Defence Policy: Common Denominators and Misunderstandings, edited by Federico Santopinto and Megan Price, 27-47. Centre for European Policy Studies, 2013

ARTICLES AND ANALYSIS PAPERS:
Belin, J., Guille , M. “R&D et innovation en France: Quel financement pour les entreprises de la defense”, Innovations, 28, 2008,
Bickerton, C., Irondelle, B. and Menon, A. “Security Co-operation Beyond the Nation-State: The EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy”, Journal for Common Market Studies, vol. 49, no. 1, 2011.
Biscop, Sven. “Mediterranean mayhem: lessons for European crisis management”, Egmont Security Policy Brief, 19/IV/2011, 2011.
Carmona, Robert. “Un budget de transition pour la Défense en 2013” [A Transition Budget for Defense in 2013], La Tribune No. 313, March 2013.
Chantrill, Christopher. “Public Spending Details for 2010.” 2010. Available at www.ukpublicspending.co.uk/year_spending_2010UKbn_12bc1n_30
Cooper, I. ‘The euro crisis as the revenge of neo-functionalism’ EU Observer, 2011.
Cornish, Paul and Geoffrey Edwards. “Beyond the EU/NATO dichotomy: the beginnings of a European strategic culture”. International Affairs ,Volume 77, Issue 3, pages 587–603, July 2001.
Cornish, Paul and Andrew M. Dorman, “Fifty shades of purple? A risk-sharing approach to the 2015 Strategic Defence and Security Review.” International Affairs, Vol. 89 (5), September 2013.
Cugny,Emmanuel. “Budget Defense 2014–2019: Les longs soupirs de la Grande mette” [Defense Budget 2014–19, The Army’s Big Sigh], November 26, 2013.

Davis, Jan and Robin Dodd. “US ‘Prompt Global Strike’ Capability: A New Destabilising Sub-State Deterrent in the Making?”, British American Security Information Council, occasional paper, 2006.

De La Brosse, Guillaume. “Deploying financial tools in support of European Defence Cooperation”, Armament Industry European Research Group, March 2017. Available at http://www.iris-france.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/ARES-Group-Comment-G-DelaBrosse-f%C3%A9v-17.pdf

Dupuy, R.” L’industrie europienne de defense : changements institutionnels et strategies de cooptition des firmes, dans le dossier Fondements economiques et industriels de la defense”, Innovations, 42(3), 2013

Drent, Margriet and Dick Zandee .”European defence: action and commitment”. EU Strategy to Defence Series, March 2017. Available at https://www.clingendael.nl/sites/default/files/PB_European_Defence_action_and_commitment_0.pdf

Dyson, Tom and Theodore Konstadinides. “Understanding the Limitations of the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy.” Routledge, 2013
Edwards, Jay. “The EU Defence and Security Procurement Directive: A Step towards Affordability?” Chatham House, 2011.

Fiott, Daniel. “The Geopolitical Implications of the Eurozone Crisis: The Case of the Common Security and Defence Policy.” UACES, 3 September 2012.
Fontanel, J., Hebert, J. , The End of the “French Grandeur Policy”, Defence and Peace Economics, 8(1), 1997
Foucault, Martial. “The Defence Budget in France: Between Denial and Decline”, IFRI, December 2012.
Giegerich, Bastian, Alexander Nicoll. “The Struggle for Value in European Defence”, Survival 54: 1, 2012.
Giji Gya. ‘The ESS Scorecard’. European Security Review , No 42, ISIS Europe, December 2008.
Gotkowska, Justyna. “Defence Procurement - A Minefield for Germany's New Defence Minister?” Centre for Eastern Studies, February 2014. Available at http://www.isn.ethz.ch/Digital-Library/Articles/Detail/?lng=en&id=177470
Gotkowska, Justina. “New market conditions and “exit strategies” for the German arms industry.” Centre for Eastern Studies 130, 2014. Available at http://www.osw.waw.pl/sites/default/files/commentary_130.pdf
Greco Ettoro, N. Pirozzi, Stefano Silvestri (eds). “EU Crisis Management: Institutions and Capabilities in the Making.” IAI, Rome, November 2010.
Jones, Chris. “United we stand, divided we fall: Supply chain consolidation and the rise of risk-sharing partners”. MRO, June 2015.
Heidenkamp, Henrik. “ Financial Imperatives for Germany's Security and Defence Policy”, RUSI, November 2011. Available at https://www.rusi.org/go.php?structureID=commentary&ref=C4EB8157BCED94#.U5nyVPl_uSo
Heuninckx, Baudouin. “The European Defence Agency Capability Development Plan and the European Armaments Cooperation Strategy: Two Steps in the Right Direction.” Public Procurement Law Review, Volume 18, Issue 4, Sweet & Maxwell, 2009. Available at http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/pprg/documentsarchive/fulltextarticles/heuninckxeuropeandefenceagency.pdf
Keller, Patric. ”German Hard Power: Is There a There There?”, AEI Outlook Series, October 2013.
Koutrakos, Panos. “The Role of Law in Common Security and Defence Policy: Functions, Limitations and Perceptions.” 2011.
Krahmann, Elke. "Conceptualising Security and Governance." Cooperation and Conflict 38(1), 2003.
Liberti, Fabio “Defence spending in Europe: Can we do better without spending more?”, Institut Jacques Delors, June 2011.
Luis Simón, “A spider in Europe’s web? French grand strategy from Iraq to Libya.” Geopolitics, 3/I/2013
Major, Claudia, Mölling, Christian and Alicia von Voß. “The State of Defence Cooperation in Europe.” German Institute for Internationa and Security Affairs, Working Paper, FG 03-WP No 3, December 2013.
Major, Claudia and Florian Wassenberg. “Warsaw’a Ambitious CSDP Agenda.” German Institute for Internationa and Security Affairs, September 2011. Available at http://www.swp-berlin.org/fileadmin/contents/products/comments/2011C25_mjr_wsb_ks.pdf
Major, Claudia. “France, Germany and European defence: more pragmatism and less pathos, please.” Comité d’études des relations franco-allemandes, January 2013.
Masson, H, La reorganisation de l’industrie de dйfense britannique, Recherche et documents de la Fondation pour la recherche stratйgique. 2008

Masson, H., Industrie de defence et soutien public а la R&D en Europe, Recherche et documents de la Fondation pour la recherche stratйgique. 2010
Matelly, Sylvie and Marcos Lima. “The influence of the State on the strategic choices of Defence Companies: the cases of Germany, France and the EU after the Cold War”, Journal of Innovation Economics and Management, 2016/2 (n°20), p. 61-88.
Molthof, Mieke. “France: The Disillusioned Leader of l’Europe de la Défense.” November 2013. Available at http://studentthinktank.eu/blogs/france-the-disillusioned-leader-of-leurope-de-la-defense/
O’Donnel Clara M. (Ed.). “The Implications of Military Spending Cuts for NATO’s Largest Members.” Brookings Analysis Paper, 2012. Available at http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/research/files/papers/2012/7/military%20spending%20nato%20odonnell/military%20spending%20nato%20odonnell%20pdf.pdf
Oakeshott, Michael. “The Moral Life in the Writings of Thomas Hobbes”, Rationalism in Politics and Other Essays, 1960.
Oakeshott, Michael . ‘On Being Conservative’, Rationalism in Politics and Other Essays, 1991.
Olsen, J. P. “The Many Faces of Europeanization.” Oslo, ARENA, Centre for European Studies Working Papers No.1. 2002.
Pinar, Elmanand and Marcin Terlikowski. “Balancing Austerity with Ambitions: The (Close) Future of French Defence Policy.” The Polish Institute of International Affairs, January 2013.
Posen, Barry. “ESDP and the Structure of World Power.” The International Spectator, vol. 39, no. 1, 2004
Rynning,Sten. “Return of the Jedi: Realism and the Study of the European Union”, Politique européenne, no. 17, Autumn 2005.
Savkovic. Marco. “Europe's Defence in Times of Austerity: Spending Cuts as a One-Way Street?” BCSP, October 2012.
Schweller,Randall L. “Bandwagoning for Profit: Bringing the Revisionist State Back In.” International Security 19:1, 1994.
Shurkin, Michael “Setting Priorities in the Age of Austerity: British, French, and German Experiences.” RAND Corporation, RR-222, 2013.
Taylor, Trevor and Heidenkamp, Henrik et al. “The Defence Industrial Triptych : Government as Customer, Sponsor and Regulator” Routledge Journals, 2013
Snyder, Glenn. “The Security Dilemma in Alliance Politics”, World Politics Vol.36, No.4, 1984.

Valasek, Tomas. “Surviving austerity: The case for a new approach to EU military collaboration”, Centre for European Reform, 2011
Violakis, Petros. “Europeanisation of the EU defence and security policy after the end of the Cold-War”, University of Exeter, 2016
Walasek, Tomas. “Surviving Austerity: The case for a new approach to EU military collaboration.” Centre for European Reform, 2011. Available at http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR200/RR222/RAND_RR222.pdf
Waltz, Kenneth. “The Emerging Structure of International Politics.” International Security, vol. 18, no. 2, Fall 1993.
Webber, Mark,Stuart Croft, Terry Terriff and Elke Krahman, “The Governance of European Security.” Review of International Studies, vol. 30, no. 1, January 2004.
Wohlforth, William. “The Russian-Soviet Empire: A Test of Neorealism.” Review of International Studies, vol. 27, December 2001.

OFFICIAL REPORTS:
BAE Systems, Annual Report 2013, London, 2014. Available at: http://bae-systems-investor-relations-v2.production.investis.com/~/media/Files/B/BAE-Systems-Investor-Relations-V2/Annual%20Reports/BAE-annual-report-2013.pdf
Bekkers, F. et al. Development of a European Defence Technological and Industrial Base. Main report. TNO, 2009.
Ballester, Blanca. Cost of Non-Europe Report: European Common Security and Defence Policy. EPRS CoNE 4/2013, Brussels, 2013.
Brooke-Holland, Louisa and Tom Rutherford. Army 2020. House of Commons Library. London, United Kingdom, July 2012.
Briani, Valerio and Marrone, Alessandro, et al. The Development of a European Defence Technological and Industrial Base (EDTIB). Directorate-General for External Policies of the Union, June 2013
Brune, Sophie-Charlotte, and Christian Molling. The Impact of the Financial Crisis on European Defence. European Parliament, Directorate General for External Policies, 2011. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/document/activities/cont/201106/20110623ATT22406/20110623ATT22406EN.pdf
Council of European Union. Presidency Progress Report to the Helsinki European Council on Strengthening the Common European Policy on Security and Defence. Annex I to Annex IV, Helsinki, 10-11 December 1999.

Council of the European Union. Report from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council on transposition of directive 2009/81/EC on Defence and Security Procurement. 2009.

The Defence Committee. Seventh Report of Session 2013–14: Towards the next Defence and Security Review. Part One , Paragraph 12, January 7, 2014.
European Defence Agency. Defence Data 2012. Brussels, 2013. Available at: http://www.eda.europa.eu/docs/default-source/eda-publications/defence-data-booklet-2012-web
European Commission. European Defence Action Plan: Towards a European Defence Fund. Brussels, November 30, 2016.
European Commission -press release, A new deal for European Defence: towards a more competitive and efficient defence and security sector.Brussels, 2013
French Senate, Rapport D’Information N°680. [Information Report No. 680], July 18, 2012.
French Senate. Rapport general commission des finance No. 107. 2012.
Government of France. LOI no 96-589 du 2 juillet 1996 relative à la programmation militaire pour les années 1997 à 2002” [Law No. 96-589 of July 2, 1996, Related to the the Military Programming Law for the Years 1997 to 2002]. July 2, 1996.

House of Commons Library, Brexit: Impact Across Policy Areas, 26 August 2016, p 169

Moores, Ben. Balance of Trade: Global Defence Trade Report 2015, IHS Jane’s, April 2015.

Rolls Royce Holding Plc., Annual Report 2016, London, 2016. Available at https://www.rolls-royce.com/~/media/Files/R/Rolls-Royce/documents/annual-report/rr-2016-full-annual-report.pdf

SIPRI. Trends in International Arms Transfers, 2016. Stockholm, February 2017

U.K. Ministry of Defence. Better Defence Acquisition: Improving how we procure and support Defence equipment. June 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/206032/20130610_WP_Better_Def_Acquisition_screen_final.pdf
U.K. Ministry of Defence. Statistical Series 2 – Personnel Bulletin 2.03 – Service & Civilian Personnel 2013. 26 September 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/280155/2013.pdf
UK National Audit Office. Ministry of Defence: The Major Projects Report 2011. London, 2011.

U.K. National Audit Office. The Cost-effective Delivery of an Armoured Vehicle Capability. London, 2011.


OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS AND POLICY PAPERS:

Adam, Patricia. LArmée de Terre ne Dispose Plus Totalement des Ressources Nécessaires à Une Préparation Opérationnelle de Qualité, in Ract-Madoux’s Audition to Parliament, available at http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/14/cr-cdef/11-12/c1112007.asp#P6_477

Bekker, Sonja, and Ton Wilthagen. Europe's pathways to flexicurity: Lessons presented from and to the Netherlands. 2008.

British Ministry of Defence. Building Stability Overseas Strategy, UK Department for International Development, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, July 2011.

British Ministry of Defence, Statistical Series 2 – Personnel Bulletin 2.03 – Service & Civilian Personnel 2013, 26 September 2013.

Council of the European Union. A secure Europe in a better world - European security strategy. Brussels, 12 December 2003

Council of the European Union. European Security and Defence Policy : Development of European Military Capabilities. 2008.

Council of the European Union. Declaration on Strengthening Capabilities. 11 December 2008.

Council of the European Union. Council Joint Action 2004/551/CFSP. OJL 245/17, 2004.

European Commission. Communication towards a more competitive and efficient defence and security sector. SWD, 2013.

European Commission. Report on transposition of Directive 2009/43/EC simplifying terms and conditions for transfer of defence-related products within the EU. COM/2012/0359 final, 2012.

European Council declaration on strengthening the Common European Policy on Security and Defence, Cologne European Council, 1999.

The European Council. Helsinki Headline Goal 2010. 17 and 18 June 2004.

European Defence Agency. An Initial Long-Term Vision for European Defence Capability and Capacity Needs. October 2006.

European Parliament and Council. Directive 2009/43/EC: simplifying terms and conditions of transfers of defence-related products within the Community. 6 May 2009

European Union, Treaty on European Union (Maastricht text), July 29, 1992, O.J. C 191/1.

European Union. Treaty on European Union (Consolidated Version). Treaty of Amsterdam, 2 October 1997.

European Union, Treaty of Lisbon Amending the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty Establishing the European Community, 13 December 2007.

Federal Ministry of Defence, Ressortbericht zum Stand der Neuausrichtung der Bundeswehr, [Interagency Report on the State of the Reorientation of the Bundeswehr], Bundesministerium der Verteidigung, May 8, 2013.

Federal Ministry of Defence, Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie, Rüstungsexportbericht 2005–2012, [Ministry for Economy and Technology, arms-exports-report 2005-2012], 2013.

Federal Ministry of Defence, Konzentration und Verantwortung: Die Prozessorientierte Neuausrichtung der Bundeswehr, [ Concentration and responsibility : The process-oriented realignement of the Bundeswehr]. 2011.

French Ministry of Defence. The French White Paper on Defence and National Security 2008, Odile Jacob Publishing Corporation, New York, 2008.
French Ministry of Defence. Programme Loi de Programmation Militaire, [military planning law 2014-2019]. May 2013.

French Ministry of Defence, Projet de loi relatif à la programmation militaire pour les années 2009 à 2014 et portant diverses dispositions concernant la défense [Draft military planning law 2009–2014 and diverse defence measures], 2008.

French Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Defense budget guidelines for 2011-2013, Paris, July 7, 2010. http://ambafrance-us.org/spip.php?article1751

French Ministry of Defence. White Paper on Defence and National Security, April 2013.

French Ministry of Defence. Programme Loi de Programmation Militaire, [military planning law 2014-2019]. May 2013.

The French Navy, Projet de LPM: Un moindre mal, [MPL Project: A Lesser Evil], Mer et Marine, August 5, 2013.

The Foreign Affairs Ministers and Ministers of Defence of France, Germany, Italy, Poland and Spain. “Paris declaration of the Wiemar Plus Group”, Paris, 15 November 2012. http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/en/IMG/pdf/121114_Outcome_proposal_Final.pdf .

HM Treasury. Budget 2011: Return to an order of the House of Commons. London, March 2011

The House of Commons. Defence Committee’s Seventh Report of Session 2009-10 “The Comprehensive Approach: the point of war is not just to win but to make a better peace”, London, 18 March 2010.

Thessaloniki European Council, Presidency Conclusions, 19-20 June 2003, no. 56.

U.K. Cabinet Office. Securing Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR). October 2010. Available at http://www.direct.gov.uk/prod_consum_dg/groups/dg_digitalassets/@dg/@en/documents/digitalasset/dg_191634.pdf

U.K. Cabinet Office. A Strong Britain in an Age of Uncertainty: The National Security Strategy (NSS). October 2010
U.K. Ministry of Defence. Better Defence Acquisition: Improving how we procure and support Defence equipment. June 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/206032/20130610_WP_Better_Def_Acquisition_screen_final.pdf

PAPERS PRESENTED AT MEETING OR CONFERENCE:

Ginsberg, Roy H. “Measuring and Evaluating CSDP Impact: The Case of EU-NATO Relations” paper presented at the Twelfth Biennial International Conference of the European Union Studies Association, Boston, Massachusetts, March 3-5, 2011.
Kelly, Eanna. “Why the EU needs to start spending on defence R&D” paper presented at the European Defence Procurement Conference, September 22, 2016. Available at http://www.eudefenceprocurement.com/single-post/2016/10/13/Why-the-EU-needs-to-start-spending-on-defence-RD
Miotti, L. and Sachwald, F. Patterns of R&D Cooperation by European Firms: Cost-Economizing vs. Technology-Seeking, DRAFT for discussion, AITEG Workshop Madrid, May 25-26 2001.
Norheim-Martinsen, Per M. “Beyond Intergovernmentalism: the Governance Approach to the European Security and Defence Policy.” Paper presented at the Fourth Pan-European Conference on EU Politics, ECPR Standing Group on the European Union, University of Latvia, Riga, 25-27 September 2008.
Soder, Kristen. “EU military crisis management: an assessment of member states’ contributions and positions”, draft for the meeting of the COST Action IS0805 on New Challenges of Peacekeeping and the European Union's Role in Multilateral Crisis Management. May 2010

Panetta, L. “The US Rebalance Towards the Asia-Pacific”, speech given at the 11th IISS Asia Security Summit on 2 June 2012, Singapore. 2012.
NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES:
Airforce Technology. “Royal Air Force starts upgraded Puma MK2 training flights.” 27 November 2013. http://www.airforce-technology.com/news/newsroyal-air-force-starts-upgraded-puma-mk2-training-flights
BBC News. “Nimrod aircraft scrapped at Stockport BAE factory.” January 26, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-12292390
Charillon, Frederic. “France and its new military budget: rethinking power.” RUSI Newsbrief, Vol. 33, No. 6, November 2013. Available at http://fredericcharillon.blogspot.cz/2013/12/france-and-its-new-military-budget.html
EDA Press Center. “Aggregated defence data 2014 and 2015 (estimated)”. European Defence Agency, June 07, 2016. Available at https://www.eda.europa.eu/info-hub/press-centre/latest-news/2016/06/07/aggregated-defence-data-2014-and-2015-(estimated)
EUROSTAT. “Government expenditure on defence”, March 2017. Available at http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Government_expenditure_on_defence
Fouchaux, Dorothée. “French hard power: Living on the strategic edge.” American Enterprise Institute, February 04, 2014. Available at: http://www.aei.org/outlook/foreign-and-defense-policy/defense/nato/french-hard-power-living-on-the-strategic-edge
Gautier, Louis. ‘Budget de la defense: tour d’écrou et escamotage,’[Defence Budget: Round of retraction], Les Echos, 1 December 2010.
Guillermard, Véronique and Cécile Crouzel. “Budget de la Défense: la recherché preserve.” [Defence Budget: to preserve desired], Le Figaro, 8 January 2011.
Hopkings, Nick. “UK to withdraw 11,000 troops from Germany by 2016.” The Guardian. 5 March 2013. http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2013/mar/05/uk-withdraw-troops-germany-2016
Le Monde, “Qui participe à l'opération Serval au Mali?” [Who Is Participating in the Operation Serval in Mali?], January 21, 2013.
Melvin, Joshua. “French arms industry enjoys boom in trade.” The Local, 30 January 2014. Available at: http://www.thelocal.fr/20140130/arms-france-sold-a-lot-of-weapons-in-2013
Tanguy, Jean-Marc. “Le Livre blanc lave plus blanc que blanc” [The White Paper Washes Whiter than White], Le mamouth blog, April 30, 2013, http://lemamouth.blogspot.com/2013/04/le-livre-blanc-lave-plus-blanc-que-blanc.html
Sengupta, Kim. “Blood money: UK’s £12.3bn arms sales to repressive states.” The Independent. 17 July 2013. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/blood-money-uks-123bn-arms-sales-to-repressive-states-8711794.html
Stern , Johannes. “German arms exports almost doubled in 2015” , WSWS, International Committee of the Fourth International, July 8, 2016.
Urban, Mark. “UK to spend £2.5bn on F-35 fighters.” BBC, February 11, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-26124894
Willett, Lee. “BAE Systems launches UK Royal Navy's third Astute-class SSN.” HIS Jane’s, London, May 19, 2014. http://www.janes.com/article/38179/bae-systems-launches-uk-royal-navy-s-third-astute-class-ssn
Withington, Thomas. “French defence industrial base: looking beyond the budget.” Indian Defence Review, Vol. 28.1, March 2013. Available at: http://www.indiandefencereview.com/spotlights/french-defence-industrial-base-looking-beyond-the-budget/
Woron, Felicia. “For Realists, Brexit Was No Surprise”, The Gate, July 2016. Available at http://uchicagogate.com/2016/08/08/for-realists-brexit-was-no-surprise/

OFFICIAL WEB PAGES:
The Bundeswehr (the unified armed forces of the Federal Republic of German), http://www.bundeswehr.de/portal/a/bwde/!ut/p/c4/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP3I5EyrpHK9pPKUVP2CbEdFACboydc!/
EU Public Procurement portal. http://export.gov/europeanunion/defenseprocurement/
Eurofighter Typhoom. http://www.eurofighter.com/
French Ministry of Defence. http://www.defense.gouv.fr/english/portail-defense
U.K. Ministry of Defence. https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/ministry-of-defence
Royal Air Force database. http://www.raf.mod.uk/
SIPRI Arms Transfers Database. http://www.sipri.org/databases/copy_of_armstransfers
Předběžná náplň práce
The end of the Cold War in the beginning of the1990s has marked the shift in a bipolar world order system. Changing geopolitical, economic and social environment, as well as rapid technological progress, has led to a deep restructuring and streamlining of the defence entities in Europe and the United States. National States had to adapt to changing conditions by redefining their Defence and Security policies. Consequently, in over a decade the defence sector has undergone a drastic restructuring and consolidation. With European states have redefined their defence industrial policies by mainly reducing their military expenditures the national defence industries have suffered greatly. Defence companies had to streamline their production into new operational dimension of greater capacity requirements and weapons efficiency. Furthermore, national defence contractor has to cope with new technological innovations while dealing with budget cuts in public procurement policies.
Moreover, in the course of defence industry transition the relationship between the industry and the state has been changing drastically. During the Cold War period, the military sector and resources were tightly controlled by the state, so defence industrial sector was largely national. With the new world order, the relationship between states and their related defence industries gain more entrepreneurial character to a different extent. As national governments began to act as “real” customers, defence contractors had to adapt to a new market economy and competition. This led to gradual rationalization and institutionalization of defence sector beyond national border with a different degree of success.

CONCEPTUAL EXPLANATION
This research project seeks to investigate, analyse and compare how new geopolitical environment has affected defence industrial policy of the three major European military powers – France, Germany and the United Kingdom. Moreover, the analysis of national defence industrial policy will be conducted within its military and material dimension. With a considerable body of analysis attributing causal primary to economic and industrial aspects of the national defence, this study seeks to analyse dynamics of the state-industry relationship. Therefore, the main objective of the research is to analyze national defence industry (being the targeted subject in this research) of chosen states and to examine the impact of economic and geopolitical pressures on their capacity.
This study is particularly relevant for the EU’s common defence and security policy for two contrasting reasons. The first is the great sensitivity of Member States over their national preferences in military matters, as evidenced by their efforts over the years to ensure that every aspect of defence policy is kept under national control and separate from EU institutions. The second is the growing recognition by Member States of the need to pool and share their military capabilities in order to protect national security interest in an international environment where, individually, they are losing influence. However, while there may be a rationale for greater defence cooperation if not further integration within EU, the institutional developments and legal framework of the cooperation on EU level indicates that nearly every attempt to facilitate defence cooperation is vigorously contested.
The issues of national defence policy dynamics in course of economic and budgetary crisis are both of political and academic relevance. Although, various aspects of the defence cooperation and integration within EU have received significant academia attention, the scholarship on the defence integration is generally fragmented in its theoretical inquiry. Thus, this research aims to explore an analytical utility of two main competing theories in the international relations, particularly Constructivism and Neorealism, in regards to the EU defence policy and interactions between main actors within. Critical assessment of two theories suggest that Neorealist insights on forms of alliance formation behavior and its systematic approach to international relations is of greater relevance for the present research’s objectives. Taking into consideration, that national governments are at the same time the main customers, regulators and financers of the defence industry, they are in a position to directly influence its structure and performance. With the assumption that states play a major role in the process of defence industry consolidation and they chose to participate in various integration projects in regards to their strategic objectives and interests, either it gaining more power or assuring its national sovereignty, this study lays within the Neorealist conceptual framework.
In this context, the central question of research is:
- How did member states of EU respond to geopolitical and economical context of the post-Cold War era in regard to their national defence industrial policies?
In respect to the research question a set of supplementary questions has been drawn: How the change in the high politics affected the other dimensions of the non-traditional aspect of international security, in particular how the relationship among economics-power-security reconfigured? How national industrial policies have influence the defence integration and institutionalization process within EU? In what ways EU institutions adopted their reasons of existence and co-existence into this new defence architecture?
Drawing from the realism assumption on the role of state’s interest in power configurations, the hypothesis of this study is:
Despite geopolitical pressures and economic stagnation, national states of the EU do not transition its control over assets that are strategically important to national sovereignty towards supranational entities.
Therefore, the integration of national defence sectors in the EU remains rather limited and fragmented. Its trajectory is controlled and enforced by the national states acting in the line with their objectives.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
Examining the restructuring of national defence industry appears to be challenging due to the dynamic character of events that shape policy in this area. However, in order to achieve stated objectives qualitative with elements of quantitative research methods have been selected. The analysis is operated in deductive manner which is characterized by top-down approach. Moreover, the research design is comparative and case-oriented. Comparative research analysis of selected cases is perfectly suited to examine multi-causality of external as well as internal factors on national defence sectors in particular and unique context. As well as it gives the opportunity to compare the impact of the implemented austerity and restructuring measures by the state on national defence industry capacity and examine certain features of national defence spending trends. Thus, independent variable is structural precondition and assembly of national defence sector in the Cold War. In turn, the degree of defence industry restructuring, its retrenchment and success of implemented efforts to security and military reforms on national and EU levels are dependent variables. This research comprises set of intermediate variables shaped by national policy directions and national strategic cultures along with dynamics of international and institutional cooperation on the EU level.
The thesis is orginised in the following manner. In the beginning, the in-depth description of main defence industry characteristics will be provided. The structure of supply and deman side will be discussed in a greater detail in order to provide readers with broader understanding of defence industry peculiarities. In the next chapter, dynamics of defence cooperation within EU framework will be examined. The greater attention will be given to the European institutional and legal instruments in shaping defence cooperation of the national states. In the third chapter the theoretical framework of this thesis will be provided. It will focus on two main competing theories in the international relations - Constructivism and Neorealism. Their theoretical utility, strength and limits in regards to defence cooperation process in the EU will be analysed.
In next chapters the case study of France, Germany and the U.K. will be presented. Case study will be implemented in the similar manner:1) analysis of the state positiong in the defence industry after the Cold war; 2) economic trends and indicators of the national DTIB; 3) armed forces structural reforms and national procurement policy; 4) defence industry: the supply side; 5) Multilateral cooperation; 6) approach to CSDP; 7) Conclusion. In the conclusion chapter, the comparative analysis of national defence industrial policies will be conducted alongside with application of the theoretical insights on the European defence integration.

COUNTRY SELECTION
Germany, France and the United Kingdom have been selected for the following reasons. First, each represents relatively great military power within the EU and their Defence Industrial and Technological Base (DTIB) are of great importance in Europe. Secondly, they all represent distinctive models of state-industry relationship configuration, which were developed over the last decades. During the Cold War, the states had very similar positions and structure of DTIBs, where states were largely involved in the organization of the defence sector as the client who determined the way military programmes were developed and financed. However, in aftermath of the Cold War, each of these three states have chosen different path in developing state-industry relationship: the U.K. adopted the liberal model favoring open and competitive market; Germany decided to distance itself from its defence industry; France chose to preserve its military autonomy despite budgetary pressures.

LITERATURE OVERVIEW
The case study analysis is conducted through archival research based on scholarly literature, national security documents, mission and capability analyses, official EU documents and statements, and published interviews. Among others, the archival research will focus on national security policy documents relating to initiatives conducted in respond to the budgetary pressures, reports and investigations by national Ministry of Defence, various domestic agencies and parliamentary bodies in each country. It will also involve the examination of similar documents and reports produced through the European institutions and agencies. Finally, it will include an examination of key policy speeches by responsible ministers and heads of government related to defence policy at national and EU level.
 
Univerzita Karlova | Informační systém UK