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The Rise of Direct Democracy in the Czech Republic: Sources, Use and Consequences
Název práce v češtině: Rozvoj přímé demokracie v České republice: Příčiny, využívání a důsledky.
Název v anglickém jazyce: The Rise of Direct Democracy in the Czech Republic: Sources, Use and Consequences
Klíčová slova: Přímá demokracie, volební chování, místní přímá demokracie
Klíčová slova anglicky: Direct democracy, voting behavior, local direct democracy
Akademický rok vypsání: 2012/2013
Typ práce: disertační práce
Jazyk práce: angličtina
Ústav: Katedra sociologie (23-KS)
Vedoucí / školitel: prof. PhDr. Jiří Kabele, Ph.D.
Řešitel: skrytý - zadáno vedoucím/školitelem
Datum přihlášení: 11.03.2013
Datum zadání: 11.03.2013
Datum a čas obhajoby: 19.09.2016 00:00
Místo konání obhajoby: FSV
Datum odevzdání elektronické podoby:14.07.2016
Datum proběhlé obhajoby: 19.09.2016
Oponenti: doc. Mgr. Pavel Šaradín, Ph.D.
  Mgr. Kateřina Vráblíková, Ph.D.
 
 
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Předběžná náplň práce
V posledních několika desetiletích dochází ve většině vyspělých zemí k rozvoji institutů přímé demokracie na národní i lokální úrovni. Česká republika nepředstavuje výjimku a v posledních 25 letech došlo k postupnému, ačkoliv neúplnému, rozvoji, který směřuje k přímým formám vládnutí.

Cílem disertační práce je analýza uplatňování institutů přímé demokracie v České republice. Ačkoli je práce založena především na českých datech, jejím smyslem je také reagovat na zahraniční vědecké analýzy, které se týkají zkoumaného tématu. Práce se zaměřuje na následující otázky: Kdo podporuje a kdo se účastní přímé demokracie v ČR? Jak si voliči tvoří volební postoje a jaké jsou charakteristiky volebního chování v přímé demokracii? Jaký je vliv přímé demokracie na další formy politické participace a politickou angažovanost?

Přímou demokracii vnímám jako demokratickou inovaci a zhodnocuji ji na základě tří kritérií: inkluzivity, kompetence a efektivity (Smith 2009). Nejdříve se zaměřuji na otázku, kdo podporuje využívání přímé demokracie a zkoumám zastoupení různých sociálních skupin v hlasování v přímé demokracii (inkluzivita). Poté analyzuji rozhodování voličů a zjišťuji, zda je založeno na racionálních postojích a informovanosti o tématu hlasování (kompetence). Nakonec analyzuji, zda praxe přímé demokracie nadměrně nezatěžuje občany a nevede ke sníženému zájmu o politickou participaci (efektivita).

Výsledky analýz ukazují, že v českém kontextu naplňuje přímá demokracie tyto kritéria pouze částečně. (1) Ačkoliv je veřejná podpora přímé demokracie všeobecná a velmi vysoká, hlasování v přímé demokracii se účastní zejména ti lidé, kteří jsou již politicky aktivní. (2) Hlasování voličů v přímé demokracii podléhá různým diskurzivním strategiím a rámcům, podle kterých voliči upravují své hlasování bez ohledu na míru informovanosti o daném tématu. Nelze tedy mluvit o tom, že lidé hlasují v přímé demokracii kompetentně, protože samotná otázka co je kompetentní hlasování ztrácí smysl. (3) Lokální přímá demokracie sice zvyšuje politickou participaci, její efekt je ale spíše malý a není efektem pouze institucí přímé demokracie, ale také souběžně probíhajících lokálních konfliktů, které využívají institut místního referenda v politickém boji.  
Předběžná náplň práce v anglickém jazyce
In the last few decades there has been an expansion of institutions of direct democracy in most developed countries. The Czech Republic has been no exception and over the past 25 years, there has been a rise of direct democracy in the Czech Republic.

The aim of the dissertation is an analysis of the use of direct democracy in the Czech Republic.
Although the analyses are based mainly on data from the Czech Republic, the aim is also to contribute to scholarly debates in the field of direct democracy research. I focus on the following questions:

Who supports the use of direct democracy and who participates in it in the Czech Republic? How do voters form opinions and what are the characteristics of direct democracy campaigns? What is the effect of direct democracy on other forms of political participation?

I view direct democracy as an institutional innovation and evaluate it based on three criterions: inclusiveness, competence and efficiency. First, I focus on who supports the expansion of direct democracy. I also study the patterns of turnout of various social groups in direct democracy (inclusiveness). Second, I analyse the processes of opinion formation in direct democracy campaigns to find out, whether it can be regarded as competent or not. Last, I analyse whether direct democracy leads to increased or decreased political engagement (efficiency).

The results of the analyses show that direct democracy in the Czech Republic does not fully satisfy these criteria. (1) Great popular support for direct democracy does not seem to translate into real voting behaviour and direct democracy seems rather to replicate the existing biases in political participation. (2) When voting in direct democracy, citizens are subject to framing discursive strategies that work no matter how well-informed they are about the issue at stake. This questions the ability of citizens to vote competently as the issue of what is a competent vote ceases to make sense. (3) Finally, direct democracy enacted on local level does bring about increased political engagement in subsequent elections, but this seems to be an effect of politicized local community conflict – not a pure direct effect of experience with direct forms of decision making.
 
Univerzita Karlova | Informační systém UK