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Detail práce
Konflikt v Libyi na pozadí teórií médií a politiky
Název práce v češtině: Konflikt v Libyi na pozadí teórií médií a politiky
Název v anglickém jazyce: Conflict in Libya in the Theories of Media and Politics
Klíčová slova: CNN efekt, Líbya, konflikt, moderné média, zahraničná politika.
Klíčová slova anglicky: CNN Effect, Libya, conflict, modern media, foreign policy.
Akademický rok vypsání: 2010/2011
Typ práce: diplomová práce
Jazyk práce: čeština
Ústav: Katedra mediálních studií (23-KMS)
Vedoucí / školitel: PhDr. Jan Křeček, Ph.D.
Řešitel: skrytý - zadáno vedoucím/školitelem
Datum přihlášení: 12.07.2011
Datum zadání: 12.07.2011
Datum a čas obhajoby: 25.06.2012 00:00
Místo konání obhajoby: FSV Praha 1.
Datum odevzdání elektronické podoby:18.05.2012
Datum proběhlé obhajoby: 25.06.2012
Oponenti: PhDr. Vlastimil Nečas, Ph.D.
Seznam odborné literatury
Použitá literatúra Monografie:
BAHADOR, Babak. The CNN Effect in Action. How the news media pushed the west toward the war in Kosovo. 1st ed. New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. ISBN-13: 978–1–4039–7519–5
BALABANOVA, Ekaterina. Media, wars and politics. Comparing the incomparable in western and eastern Europe. 1st ed. Liverpool : Ashgate, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7546- 7069-8
HERMAN, S. Edvard; CHOMSKY, Noam. Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. 1st ed. New York : Pantheon Books, 1988. ISBN 0-375- 71449-9
McPHAIL, L. Thomas. Global comunication. Theories, stakeholders and trends. 2nd ed. Oxford : Blackwell publishing, 2006. ISBN-13: 978–1–4051–3466–8
NEUMAN, J. Lights, Camera, War. New York : St ́Martin ́s Press, 1996. ISBN 0312140045
REIFOVÁ, Irena. Slovník mediální komunikace. 1st ed. Praha : Portál, 2004. ISBN 80- 7178-926-7
ROBINSON, Piers. The CNN Effect. The myth of news, foreign policy and intevention. 1st ed. London and New York : Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0-203-99503-1
WHEELER, N. Saving strangers: Humanitarian Interventios in International Society. New York : Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0198296215
Odborné štúdie:
ANDERSON, Lisa. “Demystifying the Arab Spring.” Foreign Affairs. 2011, Vol. 90, No. 3. pp. 2-7
BAHADOR, Babak. Did the Global War on Terror end the CNN effect? Media, War & Conflict;. 2011, Vol. 4, Issue 1. pp. 37-54. Dostupné z: http://mwc.sagepub.com/content/4/1/37.abstract (5.3.2012)
BENNETT, Lance. Toward a theory of press state relations in the united states. Journal of communucation. 1990, Vol. 40. pp. 103-125. Dostupné z: http://tombirkland.com/399/bennett1990.pdf (13.3.2012)
GILBOA, Eytan. Global Television News and Foreign Policy: Debating the CNN Effect. International Studies Perspectives. 2005, Vol. 6. pp. 325–341. Dostupné z: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1528- 3577.2005.00211.x/abstract;jsessionid=2EBD602E42A89876773137CD66F234C8.d04t 03?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage= (2.3.2012)
GILBOA, Eytan. The CNN Effect: The Search for a Communication Theory of International Relations. Political Communication. 2005, Vol. 22. pp. 27-44. Dostupné z: http://ics-www.leeds.ac.uk/papers/pmt/exhibits/2280/N42777V583117G17.pdf (2.3.2012)
GILBOA, Eytan. Foreign Policymaking in the Age of Television. Feorgtown Journal of International Affairs. 2003, Vol 4., No. 1, pp. 119-126. Dostupné z: http://ics- www.leeds.ac.uk/papers/pmt/exhibits/628/gilboalocked.pdf (2.3. 2012)
HAWKINS, Virgil. Media selectivity and the other side of the CNN effect: the consequences of not paying attention to conflict. Media, War & Conflict. 2011, Vol. 4,

No. 1. pp. 55-68. Dostupné z: http://mwc.sagepub.com/content/4/1/55.abstract (2.3.2012)
JAKOBSEN, Viggo, Peter. Focus on the CNN Effect Misses the Point: The Real Media Impact on Conflict Management is Invisible and Indirect. Journal of peace research. 2000, Vol. 37, No. 2. Dostupné z: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/424916?uid=3737856&uid=2134&uid=2&uid=7 0&uid=4&sid=55895341303 (3.3.2012)
LO, V.; CHANG, Ch. Knowledge about the Gulf Wars : A Theoretical Model of Learning from the News. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics. 2006, Vol. 11. pp. 135-155. Dostupné z: http://hij.sagepub.com/content/11/3/135 (1.2.2012)
MANDELBAUM, Michael. The Reluctance to Intervene. Foreign Policy, 1994, No. 95. pp. 3-18. Dostupné z: http://intersci.ss.uci.edu/wiki/eBooks/Articles/Reluctance%20to%20Intervene%20Mand elbaum.pdf (13.2.2012)
McCOMBS, Maxwell; SHAW, Donald. The Agenda-seting Function of Mass Media. Public Opinion Quaterly. 1972. Vol. No. 2. pp. 176-187
OLSEN G. R; CARSTENSEN N.; HøYEN, K. Humanitarian crises: testing the ‘CNN effect’. Forced Migration Review. 2003, Vol. 16. Dostupné z: http://kms1.isn.ethz.ch/serviceengine/Files/ISN/129623/ichaptersection_singledocument /cacd743b-7e0c-4102-8251-e1ad5ca30db4/en/39-41.pdf. (5.2.2012)
STEWART, Patrick. Libya and the future of humanitarian intervention. The Foreign Affairs. 26. August 2011. Dostupné z: http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/68233/stewart-patrick/libya-and-the-future-of- humanitarian-intervention?page=show (29.3. 2012)

SCHORR, D. CNN effect: Edge of seat diplomacy. Christian science monitor. 27. november 1998.
SCHMITT, Michael. Wings over Libya: The No-Fly Zone in Legal Perspective. The Yale Journal of International Law Online. 2011, Vol. 36. Dostupné na: http://www.yjil.org/docs/pub/o-36-schmitt-wings-over-libya.pdf (2.1. 2012)
WILLIAMS, Jan. Resolution 1973: Responsibility to Protect, Not Humanitarian Intervention in Libya. Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 2011, Vol. 30, Issue 4. pp. 42-45. Dostupné z: http://web.ebscohost.com (2.1. 2012)
ZALLER, J.; CHIU, D. Government's little helper: U.S. Press coverage of foreign policy crises, 1945-1991. Political Communication. 1996, Vol. 13. pp. 385-405. Dostupné z: http://www.uky.edu/AS/PoliSci/Peffley/pdf/Zaller%201996%20Pol%20Comm%20Gov ernment's%20little%20helper_%20U.S.%20press%20coverage%20of%20foreign%20p olicy%20crises%201945-1991.pdf (13.3.2012)
Internetové zdroje:
BAJORIA, Jayshree. The Dilema of Humanitarian Intervention. The Council on Foreign Relation. 24. marec 2011. [online]. Dostupné z: http://www.cfr.org/human- rights/dilemma-humanitarian-intervention/p16524 (2.3. 2012)
BLANCHARD, Christopher. M. Libya: Unrest and U.S. Policy Christopher M. Blanchard. CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service. 29. marec 2011. Dostupné z: http://www.yjil.org/docs/pub/o-36-schmitt-wings-over-libya.pdf (2.1.2012)
Collective of authors, The Battle for Libya. Killings, Disappearance and Torture. Amnesty Internation. Londond : 2011. Dostupné z: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE19/025/2011/en/8f2e1c49-8f43-46d3-917d-

63 383c17d36377/mde190252011en.pdf. (29.3. 2012).
HILL, Evan. Libyans in US allege coercion. Aljazeera. 17. Február 2011. Dostupné na: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2011/02/2011217184949502493.html (22.3. 2012)
GILBOA, Eytan. The Global News Networks and U.S. Policymaking In Defense and Foreign Affairs. The Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy. Harward University. June 2002. Dostupné z: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/presspol/publications/papers/working_papers/2002_06_gilb oa.pdf (2.3. 2012)
GOWING, Nik. Real Time Television Coverage of Armed Conflicts and Diplomatic Crises: Does it Pressure or Distort Foreing Policy Decision. Harvard University, The Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy. 1994. [online]. Dostupné z: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/presspol/publications/papers/working_papers/1994_01_go wing.pdf (2.2.2012)
GERTLER, Jeremiah. Operation Odyssey Dawn (Libya): Background and Issues for Congress. CRS Report for Congress, Comgressional Research Service. 30. marec, 2011. Dostupné z: http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/R41725.pdf (2.1. 2012)
GOODMAN, Walter. Critic's Notebook; Re Somalia: How Much Did TV Shape Policy?. 8. december 1992. Dotupné z: http://www.nytimes.com/1992/12/08/washington/critic-s-notebook-re-somalia-how- much-did-tv-shape-policy.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm (14.3.2012)
HOLLIGAN, Anna. Invisible Childrens Kony Campaign gets support of ICC prosecutor. BBC News Africa, 8. marec, 2012. [online] Dostupné z: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17303179 (2.4.2012)

LIVINGSTONE, Steven. Clarifying the CNN effet: An Examination of Media Effects According to Type of Military Intervention. Harvard University. The Joan Shorenstein Center. Research Paper R -18. 1997. [online]. Dostupné z: http://tamilnation.co/media/CNNeffect.pdf (1.2.2012)
McLAUGHLIN, Erin. Television Coverage of the Vietnam War ���� and the Vietnam Veteran. 2012. Dostupné z: http://www.warbirdforum.com/media.htm (2.2. 2012)
ROUSSEA, Richard. Why Germany Abstained on UN Resolution 1973 on Libya. Foreign Policy Journal. 22. jun. 2011. Dostupné z: http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2011/06/22/why-germany-abstained-on-un- resolution-1973-on-libya/ (2.1.2012)
REARDON, Sara. Was the Arab Spring really a Facebook revolution? NewScientist. 13. april, 2012. Dostupné z: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21428596.400-was- the-arab-spring-really-a-facebook-revolution.html (17.4. 2012)
ROGIN, Josh: Over 200 Arab groups call for Libya no-fly zone. 25. februar 2011. Dostupné z: http://thecable.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/02/25/over_200_arab_groups_call_for_lib ya_no_fly_zone (2.1. 2012)
SHARKEY, E. Jacqueline. When pictures drive foreign policy. American Journalism Review. December 1993. Dostupné z www: http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=1579 (2.2. 2012)
VENABLE, Barry. The Army and the Media. The Institute od Communications Studie, University od Leeds. 2002. [online]. Dostupné z: http://ics- www.leeds.ac.uk/papers/vp01.cfm?outfit=pmt&folder=34&paper=499 (12.3.2012)
St JOHN, Bruce. Libyan Myths and Realities. Royal Danish Defence College. Institute for Strategy. Research Paper. 2011. Dostupné z: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the- world-factbook/geos/ly.html (27.2.2012)

TAHIR-KHELI, Shirin. The Lopsided U.N. Security Council Vote on Libya. World News. 19. marec 2011. Dostupné z: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2011/03/19/un-security-council-vote-on-libya- why-bric-countries-abstained.html (2.1.2012)
Internetové stránky:
www.cpj.org www.globalsecurity.org www.unhcr.com www.nytimes.com www.usatoday.com www.icc-cpi.int www.bbc.co.uk www.securitycouncilreport.org www.cia.gov www.pressreference.com
Předběžná náplň práce
Diplomová práca sa zaoberá problematikou obecného vzťahu moderných médií a zahraničnej politiky. Vo všeobecnom kontexte tohto vzťahu sme sa zamerali na teóriu CNN efektu, popisujúcu príčiny a jednotlivé prejavy vzájomnej interakcie médií a politiky. CNN efekt analyzujeme na konkrétnom príklade ozbrojeného konfliktu v Líbyi a jeho mediálnom pokrytí významnými americkými denníkmi. Kombináciou jestvujúcich metód výskumu CNN efektu sme vytvorili adaptovaný výskumný rámec, založený na kvantitatívnej obsahovej analýze všetkých článkov s hlavnou témou Líbya publikovaných po dobu 33 dní od vypuknutia nepokojov po prijatie rezolúcie Bezpečnostnej rady OSN v denníku The New York Times a USA Today. Hlavnými posudzovanými premennými sa stali dátum publikovania textu, jeho rozsah, ťažisková téma, rubrika a predovšetkým hodnotové zameranie textu v prospech či neprospech ozbrojenej intervencie. Analýzu mediálneho pokrytia sme následne konfrontovali s faktografickou analýzou vývoja konfliktu v totožnom časovom období. Výsledky výskumu potvrdili potenciálny vzťah medzi mediálnym pokrytím konfliktu a rozhodnutím americkej diplomacie zapojiť sa vojenských operácií spojených s plnením rezolúcie Bezpečnostnej rady OSN. Preukázanie absolútnej kauzality je žiaľ podmienené realizáciou výrazne rozsiahlejšieho viacdimenzionálneho výskumu. Dodatočnými výstupmi z obsahovej analýzy sa stali tiež potvrdenia dielčich hypotéz o rozličnom spôsobe mediálneho pokrytia témy medzi dvoma významnými americkými denníkmi.
Předběžná náplň práce v anglickém jazyce
Diploma thesis is concerned with the topic of relations between modern media and foreign policy. In a general context of this relation, we focused on the theory of CNN effect, describing it causes and particular manifestations mutual media and policy interactions. We try to analyze CNN effect on single case of armed conflict in Libya and its media coverage by influential American daily papers. By combination of existing scientific methods, we created adapted research method for our case, which is based on quantitative content analyses of all published articles with main topics – armed conflict in Libya – in the period of 33 days till the adoption of Security Council resolution. Main variables of our research was the date of publishing, articles range, section in newspaper and especially “value direction” of article in favor or not in favor of armed intervention to Libya. Analyses of media coverage of this topic were then confronted with factual analyses of topic in same time period. Results of our research confirmed potential relation between media coverage and US state department decision to intervene in Libya conflict. For absolute causality confirmation between these two variables would be necessary much more extensive research. Additional output of this research was confirmation of partial hypothesis about different styles of media coverage by two different analyzed daily papers.
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